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    一種基于霍爾傳感器的車輛行程及速度測量系統
    【摘 要】 汽車已成為人們日產生活中必不可少的出行方式之一。車輛行駛狀況的測量關系到行車成本、安全等諸多方面。本文基于89c51單片機、霍爾傳感器和液晶顯示器設計了一款車輛行程及速度測量系統。系統中用玩具車輪代替實際車輪,在其上安裝磁性物質,如很小的磁鐵,磁性物質每通過霍爾傳感器一次就產生一個脈沖,通過對脈沖信號計數,則可計算出車輛行駛里程及車速,并顯示在液晶顯示器上。本系統原理簡單可靠,維護成本較低,可以在實際中推廣。
      【關鍵詞】 霍爾傳感器 脈沖計數 行程測量 車速測量 單片機
      1 引言
      小到當前各種智能車的控制,大到生產生活中各種車輛的運輸成本優化及安全保證,車輛行程及車速的測量都發揮著很重要的作用。
      當前普遍使用光電編碼器來測量行程和車速,其原理是:將一圓盤與車輪同軸相連,圓盤上帶有一定數量且按規律分布的孔洞,光源和接收裝置分別置于圓盤兩側,工作時光源一直發出直線光束,由于孔洞的移動,接收裝置按一定頻率接收到光信號,通過計算頻率可得到車速等信息。但是由于塵埃的影響或光源與接收裝置相對位置的變換很容易導致測量結果的錯誤,甚至得不到結果。本文中的車輛行程及車速測量系統在具有光電編碼器全部優點的前提下,同時克服了它的不足。磁信號的傳輸不受塵埃的影響,相對位置的微小變化也不會導致錯誤的結果,具有較高的可靠性和準確性,應用范圍廣闊。
      2 系統原理:
      2.1 霍爾傳感器工作原理
      霍爾傳感器是根據霍爾效應制作的一種磁場傳感器。www.zhidachem.com霍爾效應是磁電效應的一種。在半導體薄片兩端通以控制電流,并在薄片的垂直方向施加磁感應強度為的勻強磁場,則在垂直于電流和磁場的方向上,將產生電勢差為的霍爾電壓。
      將霍爾效應與集成電路相結合,即可得到霍爾傳感器。如圖1左邊所示,當霍爾傳感器的磁接觸面附近的磁感應強度達到時,傳感器輸出電壓將由低電平轉換為高電平;當磁感應強度回落到時,輸出電壓又由高電平轉換為低電平。當磁感應強度變化較快時,傳感器輸出電壓就相當于一個脈沖信號,如圖1右邊所示。
      2.2 脈沖計數原理
      在輪子的邊沿處貼上磁性物質,將車輪轉軸與霍爾傳感器磁接觸面的相對位置固定,如圖2所示。當車輪轉動時,磁性物質周期性地經過霍爾傳感器的磁接觸面,傳感器的輸出電壓信號就會呈現出如圖1右邊的脈沖信號。對這些脈沖信號進行計數,同時用單片機進行計時。車輛行駛的里程數就是單片機接收到的脈沖數與車輪周長的乘積,車速就是行程與計時時間的商。
      圖2所示的系統中,車輪每轉一周會產生一個脈沖。也可以在車輪上按一定的角度分布個磁性物質,這時車輪每轉一圈產生個脈沖信號,得到的結果也就更精確。
      3 車輛行程及車速測量算法
      假設車輪半徑為,其上分布了個磁性物質,時間內接收到個脈沖信號。根據假設條件可知車輪周長為
      (1)
      由于車輪周邊分布了個磁性物質,故每轉一圈會產生個脈沖信號。為求得行車里程,必須先求出車輪轉動的圈數,圈數與車輪周長的乘積就是行車里程數,則有
      (2)
      這里假設的時間是指整個行車過程的總時間,用它可求出整個過程的平均速度為
      (3)
      但是我們常常更關注的是行車過程中的瞬時速度。此處可以使用單片機定時,獲得該段時間內的脈沖數,依照上述方法可得出瞬時速度。在車輪上只有一處磁性物質的條件下,當車輪沒有完整轉動一圈時,傳感器就會少產生一個脈沖信號,進而引起誤差,此時的最大誤差為;車輪上有兩處磁性物質時,最大誤差為;車輪上有三處磁性物質時,最大誤差為;以此類推,可得車輪上有個磁性物質時,行程測量誤差和速度誤差分別為
      (4)
      4 系統硬件結構設計
      系統硬件主要由兩部分組成,一是位于車輪上的磁性物質以及與車輪相對位置保持不變的霍爾傳感器磁接觸面;二是用于數據處理的單片機和液晶顯示器部分。系統結構圖和實物圖分別如圖3所示。
      車輪轉動時,霍爾傳感器磁接觸面感應到磁場的周期變化,輸出脈沖信號。單片機對脈沖信號進行計數,算出單位時間內的速度,整個行車過程中的平均速度,以及行車路程。4*4的編碼鍵盤用于一些簡單的命令的輸入,例如該系統的啟停操作、數據清零或數據備份等等。
      5 結語
     

     本文介紹的車輛行程及速度測量系統具有原理簡單、工作穩定、結果準確、操作簡潔、維護方便等諸多優點。從小的方面看,以“飛思卡爾”智能車比賽為代表的許多智能車的控制需要速度反饋,當前普遍采用的是光電編碼的形式,實際上車輛行程及速度測量系統完全能夠取代光電編碼。從大的方面來說,我們日常生活中的出租車計費系統也可以采用霍爾傳感器的方式來進行計費。綜上所述,本文介紹的車輛行程及速度測量系統具有十分廣泛的應用場景。
      參考文獻:
      [1]黃勤.單片機原理及應用[m].北京:清華大學出版社,2005.
      [2]陳棣湘,潘孟春,羅飛路等.基于霍爾傳感器的高準確度磁場測量方法[j].傳感器技術,2004,23(2):59—61.
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  •  更新時間:2014-08-31 10:49:44  作者:佚名 [標簽: 霍爾 傳感器 行程 速度 測量系統 ]
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