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    用歷史學科語言解決問題

    用歷史學科語言解決問題

      《考試說明》考核目標與要求規定了學生要具備描述和闡釋事物歷史學科能力,要求學生“運用學科知識,提出解決問題的步驟,并使用簡明、準確的歷史學科術語完整地描述和闡釋問題”。在高考歷史評分細則中明確規定“用詞不準或詞不達意者”,均只給少量分數甚至不給分。由此可見準確使用歷史學科語言在答題中的必要性和重要性。因此,在教學過程中重視對學生表達能力的培養,尤其是在平時學習、考試答題過程中規范使用歷史學科語言解決問題。
      一、準確闡述歷史概念
      歷史學科有許多概念和專有名詞必須準確表達,絕不能張冠李戴,在平時學習中有相當部分學生對一些重要的歷史概念理解失本文由論文聯盟http://收集整理
    誤,在闡述過程中出現了概念性的問題。如:評價辛亥革命歷史功績,一些學生認為辛亥革命結束了兩千多年的封建君主專制就是結束了封建制度。而君主專制是政體,封建制度是國體,封建制度包括政治上實行君主專制,經濟上是封建地主土地所有制以及思想上的等等,這是兩個不同的歷史概念,學生卻混為一談。這就要求學生學習中:
      第一,弄清歷史概念的內涵和外延。如人文精神,人文精神的基本涵義就是:尊重人的價值,尊重精神的價值。而各個歷史時期人文精神含義又不同,古希臘時期的人文精神:提出“人是萬物的尺度”的主張,一下子就把人置于世界和社會的中心。這是在原始宗教和自然統治之下人類自我意識的第一次覺醒。www.zhidachem.com文藝復興和宗教改革時期人文主義的含義:批判神權統治,鼓吹人性解放和思想自由;崇尚理性和科學,追求知識。啟蒙思想對人文主義的發展:啟蒙運動豐富和發展了人文精神的內涵,把反封建、反宗教神學的斗爭推進到反對封建專制制度、建立資產階級“理性王國”、按照資產階級利益構建政治制度的高度,從而比文藝復興運動更為徹底,具有鮮明的政治革命性質。
      第二,完整歸納歷史概念的內容,運用相關的歷史概念分析歷史問題。如重農抑商,從商鞅變法開始,貫穿整個封建社會,強調發展農耕,限制商業和手工業的發展,目的是維護封建統治的經濟基礎,前期促進了農業經濟的發展,鞏固了地主階級政權,但社會經濟活力受到壓抑,后期阻礙了資本主義萌芽的發展。由此進一步分析得出重農抑商政策實施的原因是封建統治需要和自給自足的自然經濟發展的必然。
      二、依據材料和所學知識做到史論結合
      《普通高中歷史課程標準》要求學生“學習歷史唯物主義的基本觀點和方法,努力做到論從史出、史論結合;養成獨立思考的學習習慣,能對所學內容進行較為全面的比較、概括和闡釋”。在平時訓練和考試中,我們發現有的學生在答題時,用口語,濫用文學性的修飾語,盲目堆砌觀點,不結合材料,要點答得太多,得分卻很低,缺乏科學、嚴謹的歷史學科語言。歷史材料解析題中要求根據材料分析強調“論從史出、史論結合”這一要求,多用歷史學科語言解答。
      例如:(王景)遷廬江太守。先是百姓不知牛耕,致地力有余而食常不足。郡界有楚相孫叔敖所起芍陂稻田。景乃驅率吏民,修起蕪廢,教用犁耕,由是墾辟倍多,境內豐給。是歲,年疫。京師及三州大旱,詔勿收兗、豫、徐州田租、芻稿(漢代的一種稅收),其以見谷賑給貧人。(摘自《后漢書》卷七十六、卷三)
      問題:依據材料概括中國農業經濟的特征。
      材料反映了古代中國農業生產狀況,要求對這一現象所反映的中國封建時期農業經濟的特征進行概括描述,通過調動、遷移和運用所學知識,對問題要求的時代特征描述。依據材料分析得出結論:①自給自足的自然經濟;②鐵犁牛耕;③精耕細作;④受制于自然環境,具有脆弱性。
      三、教師教學中使用學科語言要規范、嚴謹
      歷史教師在課堂教學中要有規范而嚴謹的學科語言,通過教師的“言傳身教”對培養學生良好的歷史語言表達能力,提高他們良好的歷史素養,在知識遷移過程中準確使用歷史學科語言解決問題。在教學過程中,無論對歷史事件或歷史現象的描述或是得出的結論,都力求完整準確,解釋歷史概念要精確,區分內涵與外延,引導學生通過理解核心概念掌握相關的歷史知識。對現象的探究,要把握廣度與深度,做到不同層次的學生都能接受并理解其中的含義,揭示歷史的本質和規律要規范、準確。通過教師長期的潛移默化,使學生規范使用學科語言回答問題。
      因而,在平時的教學中教師要加強對學生歷史語言規范化要求,在解答歷史問題時,要充分尊重歷史學科語言的嚴肅性和科學性,采用標準歷史概念,用正確的觀點和恰當的語言來闡述史實,分析史料、評價歷史人物,運用學科語言來解答問題以提高準確性,避免不必要的失分。

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  •  更新時間:2013-09-12 13:01:45  作者:李振宇 [標簽: 歷史 語言 歷史 語言 嘉興 歷史 基地 ]
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    淺談歷史情境教學中的語言再現法
    伊朗語言歷史的變化
    談歷史語言課堂提高教學效率
    歷史課教學實效及其語言藝術性探索
    談歷史高效課堂中如何運用語言藝術
    歷史課堂教學語言藝術之我見
    歷史教學語言的基本要求
    歷史教學語言的藝術魅力
    新課標高中歷史語言教學藝術
    當代中國文化外交戰略的歷史嬗變
    基于初中歷史多媒體教學的探討
    淺析初中歷史教學中幾種意識的培養
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