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    錯別字的成因及糾正方法
    一、
      識字寫字是學生學習閱讀和寫作的基礎,所以多識字,寫好字是低年級學段的教學重點。而在實際教學中我們發現,有不少學生在一年級下學期和二年級上期這一段時間出現錯別字的機率特別高。無論是學習好的學生還是學習有困難的學生都會出現或多或少的錯別字。雖然孩子機械記憶的能力較強,但是易記也易忘,回生率很高,伴隨著識字量的增大,錯字、別字大量增加,而且一旦寫錯,要想糾正往往花費九牛二虎之力仍是收效甚微。那造成錯別字的原因有哪些呢?
      (一)觀察不夠認真。
      小學生由于受到心理,生理發育的限制,觀察事物不全面,不認真,對于一些形近字產生視覺上的偏差。如,“拔”和“撥”,“己”和“已”,“未”和“末”,“異”和“導”,這些字如果教師不加指導,學生很難分辨的清。
      (二)受遺忘定勢等心理因素影響
      學生從做完作業后交給老師批改,到教師批改后發給學生,周期往往太長,心理學研究表明,人對事物記憶時間超過24小時就屬于長時記憶,如果學生寫了錯別字,不及時改正,超過24小時后變成了長時記憶,就會深深的留在腦海里,要糾正過來就很不容易了,有時盡管在,短時期內就掙了,但時間一長,開始時留下的錯誤的記憶內容,還會再次出現,對正確的記憶內容產生干擾。
      (三)同音互代,不假思索寫另一個字
      小學生課外閱讀量少,感性認識和直接經驗也比較少,這就導致了經常誤用同音字。這種由于讀音相同或相近,學生很容易張冠李戴,產生錯別字,例如,立即的即,川流不息的,川,金碧輝煌的,碧,煩躁,嬌生慣養,不脛而走等等,再如學生對坐,座,在,再,做,作,區分不清。www.zhidachem.com
      (四)不解而誤
      主要是指音近而意遠,學生沒有理解意思,生拉硬扯,造成的錯別字,這種情況主要出現在古詩的默寫上,而這就是語文的重點考題,如李白的《贈汪倫》中的,首句,李白乘舟將欲行學生往往會寫成江字,再如杜牧寫的《山行》中的,遠上寒山石徑斜,白云深處有人家,學生就經常將“深”誤寫成“生”,楊萬里的,《宿新市徐公店》籬落疏疏一徑深,學生往往會把,“徑”寫成“經”。
      (五)粗心而誤
      有些學生還會由于沒有記準確或粗心大意,在書寫時添刪筆畫,使寫出來的字,要么缺胳膊少腿要么畫蛇添足,如低,底字下面的點吃掉,而“紙”字的“氏”字下面卻多了一點,再如寫“夏天”的“夏”有些學生會漏掉一橫或增加一橫,春天的春,會加一橫。“認”和“讓”也有學生經常寫錯。
      二、糾正錯別字的方法
      (一)注重第一印象,及時強化鞏固
      小學生對生字的第一印象最深,如果第一次感知錯誤,造成的錯誤表象就難以從他們的腦海中消除,因此要重視第一次的書寫指導,最大限度地調動他們各個感官的主動參與,在易錯易混的部分用紅筆標出,以示區別。另外,在課堂上應留一點時間給他他們當場書寫,教師巡視查看,防患于未然,保證他們第一次就把字寫正確,小學生學得快忘得也快為此,要對學生采取多種形式,進行及時的鞏固強化。
      (二)明義糾錯
      用偏旁表義是漢字的特點之一對一些字的偏旁如果能說出它的意思,錯誤就能減少。例如兩點水三點水,學生很容易搞混淆,教師就可以告訴學生用兩點水做偏旁的字大都和冰有關如凍,冷,涼,凝等字。而有三點水做偏旁的漢字,則大都和水有關如江河湖海洋。足字旁的字和腳有關。月字旁的字和身體有關。草字頭木字旁的字和植物有關。在教學“密”和“蜜”時就可以充分利用偏旁表義的構字規律來幫助學生記憶。這樣依據漢字的系統性,以義符、聲符、本義為中心把漢字組成一個字組,大大提高了識記效率。
      (三)讓身體動起來
      心理實驗表明:身體各個器官的充分調動有助于記憶的增強。利用這一規律,我在教學一些會意字時,常常請孩子們根據字形做出相關動作,在實際過程中讓他們對生字進行積極的思維。如講授“聞”時,請孩子站在門中,做出側耳傾聽的動作,表示“聞”的本義是聽;講授“看”時,讓孩子把手放在眉毛上眼四望,表明上半部分是一只手,“目”是眼睛;教學“休”時,請一位同學靠在模擬的樹干上,明白“停止、歇息”之意;在動動說說中,他們不僅很快記清了字形,同時也了解了這些字的本義,學會了拆字法,為今后的學習打下了基礎。
      (四)辨析

    近漢字。
      漢字識記難在記字形,漢字的識記過程就是信息的儲存和檢索的過程。識字時因形求義,建立音形義內在聯系就是對漢字而深刻的加工,可以大大強化記憶。例如教學形近字“撥”、“拔”,在辨析時我結合“撥”的本義是“用手輕輕動”,對“撥”字進行加工,告訴孩子“撥”字留有一個小短撇,就是給別人撥弄的,而“拔”需要很大的力氣,因此沒有短撇,要使勁就得拉著右邊的長撇。有了這種有意義的加工,學生可以馬上在辨析時推論出正確的選擇。
      漢字的數量龐大,可供探究的內容很多,我覺得自己還需在教學中繼續探索,讓漢字教學更為生動化,形象化,使每一個孩子都能寫出規范、正確的漢字。
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  •  更新時間:2014-08-31 10:47:29  作者:佚名 [標簽: 正方 ]
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