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    初中新課程英語詞匯記憶及其測試的分析
    【摘要】在實施新一輪的課程改革后,初中英語教材的詞匯量也得到了不同程度的豐富,對于初中生來說,由于接觸英語時間比較短,特別是針對初一年級的學生而言,英語學習基本處于入門狀態,在詞匯記憶、單詞理解等方面均存在一定的困難,影響了英語課程的深入學習。本文主要基于新課程改革的背景,研究了實施新課程改革后的英語詞匯記憶方法及測試研究。
      【關鍵詞】英語;課改;詞匯;記憶;測試
      一、前言
      新課程改革對初中英語詞匯量的要求正在進一步提升,新的教材內容中生詞率亦在增加,單詞重復率顯著降低。新課程改革標準要求初中生必須至少掌握超過1500個新單詞,且能夠學會靈活使用約300個常規詞組及習慣用語。作為一門語言學科,詞匯是所有教學內容的構建基礎,詞匯之于英語教學,好比地基之于建筑,地基是保障建筑穩定的關鍵,同樣詞匯也是學習英語知識的基礎。任何思想交流的過程均是通過將不同的詞匯組合成句子,進而實現人類的交流活動。詞匯是構成語言的基礎,是任何詞組、句子、段落的最為基本、細小的單位。對于英語教學而言,學生對詞匯的掌握與運用程度是反映教學效果的重要指標。因此,在新課程改革的背景下,要提高初中英語詞匯教學的有效性,提升課堂教學的效率,廣大英語教師需依照詞匯教學的要求,設計多元化的詞匯教學活動,教會學生更多詞匯記憶的方法,以提升其語言運用的綜合能力。
      二、強化詞匯記憶的教學策略
      在初中英語教學過程中,詞匯是決定學生英語水平的關鍵,它對學生的整體英語水平有著至關重要的影響。因此,為提升英語教學效率,在課堂教學中老師需要向學生傳授更多的、有效的詞匯記憶方法,并結合積極的教學策略,以提升學生單詞記憶的水平。www.zhidachem.com
      (一)構詞法
      任何語言的構成均會遵循一定的構詞規律,英語同樣如此,在英語中很大一部分單詞的構成均有其自身的構詞原則,學生若具備一定的單詞基礎,掌握基本的構詞規律,便能夠根據詞根、詞性準確猜測出單詞的含義,并通過聯想記憶,深化對單詞的理解,提升詞匯記憶的有效性。以farm 為例,加上后綴-er便可表示a person who lives in the farm,即farmer,農場主、農民、承包人,諸如此類的單詞還包括許多,例如:sing-singer,village-villager等,加上簡單后綴-er,放在動詞之后便表示從事該項工作的“人”及與該事情相關的“工具”。另外,還包括一些否定前綴的構詞規律等,例如:happy-unhappy,在原始單詞之前加上否定前綴-un,便可表示相反的含義。在詞匯教學中,老師需要引導學生總結單詞的構詞規律,并根據基礎單詞記憶與之相關的其他單詞,通過關聯記憶、規律把握,提升詞匯教學的效率,使學生奠定良好的詞匯基礎。
      (二)拼讀規則記憶
      英語單詞不僅有其構詞的規律,同樣在其拼讀方面亦遵循著一定的規則,學生在學習完各音節、音素的發音后,便可歸納出一定的拼讀規則。英語字組可分為元字組與輔字組,元字組主要由元音字母及字組構成,輔字組與其類似,是由輔音字母與字組組成。在英語學習的初始階段,由于學生所掌握的詞匯量相對而言比較少,對構成單詞的各個字母的發音尚不明確,此時老師便需引導學生記憶常規的字組,以增加其對發音規則的了解。在學生積累一定的詞匯基礎后,老師便可指導學生結合讀音與拼寫來對單詞做一個較為整體的記憶掌握,根據單詞的拼寫判斷其讀音,并通過讀音便可聯想單詞的字母構成,進而做到對單詞整體的把握,深化對單詞的記憶。
      (三)將詞匯放置于語境中記憶
      在英語中,較大一部分單詞的含義并不是單一、獨立的,在不同的語境中,相同的單詞亦會有不同的含義,因此,為增加學生對詞匯的理解,提升詞匯教學的有效性,老師還需將詞匯放置于具體的語境中,引導學生進行理解記憶。此種詞匯記憶方法不僅能夠深化對學生理解能力的培養,同樣能夠全面調動學生的思維能力。以number為例,作為動詞,它有“給……標號碼”的意思,而作為名詞,則主要表達數字、號碼的含義。此時在教學過程中,老師有必要為學生創設詞匯記憶的情境,列舉不同的例句,讓學生在句子中把握詞匯的含義,進行理解記憶。在“lily is numbering the pictures”一句中,“number”便作為動詞。因此,老師在教學過程中,需要引導學生通過練習教材案例,聯系整個句子,去猜測單詞的

    含義,去深化自身對詞義的理解能力。
      三、詞匯測試分析
      在英語教學中,詞匯測試的主要目的便是用于鑒別學生對詞匯的掌握水平。它同樣也是英語教學的關鍵構成要素。老師能夠通過詞匯測試所反饋的結果,制定后期針對性的教學策略,進而提高英語教學的有效性。
      整合近幾年來中考詞匯考察的習題特點設計,詞匯測試的重點均放置于一些重點名詞、動詞、形容詞等所衍生、構成的固定詞組上,主要通過轉變單詞詞性,將其置于不同的語境中,通過考察學生對句子及語篇的理解,根據所提示的單詞,寫出對應的考察單詞,以保障語段及句子的連貫性。此類命題多考察學生對句子的理解、分析能力,對詞匯知識的運用能力,對單詞的辨析能力及詞性、語態的把握等。因此,在英語教學設計時,老師需要結合考察目標,整合不同類型的詞匯考查題,將其引入課堂中,測試學生的詞匯掌握水平,強化對學生理解能力的鍛煉,主要可采取完形填空、綜合填空、短文填空等測試形式,在課程結束前10分鐘,對學生進行簡單的詞匯記憶測試,并在下一堂課前根據測試所反饋的結果,調整教學策略,細化教學重點內容,進而提升英語詞匯教學的有效性,全面提升學生的綜合素質。
      四、結語
      綜上所述,在新課程改革的背景下,要提升英語課堂教學的有效性,深化學生對詞匯的理解記憶、聯想記憶,為其英語學習奠定良好的單詞基礎,老師在教學過程中需要注重講授更多單詞記憶的有效方法,引導學生通過構詞法、拼讀記憶等規則來深化對詞匯的把握與記憶,同時還需根據新課程教學的目標,并結合中考考察的重要內容,為學生創設更多的詞匯學習情境,深化對其理解能力的培養。
      【參考文獻】
      [1]呼新民.初中新課程英語詞匯記憶及其測試的研究[j].科學導報,2013(09).
      [2]史寶桃.初中學生英語詞匯策略的應用研究[j].華東師范大學學報,2012(05).
      [3]宋仲元.解析新課程標準下的初中英語詞匯教學[j].英語教師,2012(25).
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