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    不同施氮量對紫色土煙葉產質量及質量風格特色的影響

    原文作者:傅獻軍、王忠

     摘要 通過田間試驗,研究了不同施氮量對紫色土煙葉產質量及質量風格特色的影響。結果表明:在該試驗條件下,隨著施化學氮的增加,各處理煙葉落黃延遲,葉數增多、株高增高、中上部葉增長增寬;隨著施化學氮的增加,煙葉產量、產值增加,但達到一定水平時,不再繼續增加;煙葉總糖、還原糖、糖堿比有隨施肥量增加而減少的趨勢,煙堿、總氮、鉀離子含量有隨施肥量增加而增加的趨勢。
       關鍵詞 施氮量;煙葉產量;煙葉產值;化學成分
      中圖分類號 s143.1;s572 文獻標識碼 a 文章編號 1007-5739(2013)20-0021-02
      烤煙栽培技術中,施氮是影響煙葉產量、產值及經濟性狀的關鍵技術,同時也是煙葉香氣風格特色的重要保障[1-2]。煙葉氮素不足會導致煙葉產量降低,所產煙葉色淡、平滑、香氣不足;而過多的氮盡管能少量增加產量,但會使煙葉成熟困難,烘烤難度加大,所產煙葉煙堿含量太高,勁頭和刺激性過大,影響煙葉的可用性。廣東南雄煙區是典型濃香型煙區,紫色土是主要植煙土壤,該文研究了不同施氮量對紫色土煙葉產質量及質量風格特色的影響。
       1 材料與方法
      1.1 試驗地概況
      試驗于2012年安排在廣東省煙草南雄科學研究所試驗基地進行。供試土壤為紫色土,其基本農化性狀:ph值7.35,有機質0.667%,全氮0.067%,全磷0.082%,全鉀2. 38%,速效氮54.5 mg/kg,速效磷14.7 mg/kg,速效鉀122.0 mg/kg。www.zhidachem.com
       1.2 試驗材料
      供試烤煙品種:粵煙97。供試肥料種類:硝酸(磷)銨(n∶p2o5∶k2o=30∶6∶0)、硫酸鉀(k2o 50%)、過磷酸鈣(p2o5 12%)、豬糞(n∶p2o5∶k2o=0.5∶0.2∶0.25)、花生餅肥(n∶p2o5∶k2o=4.6∶1∶1)。
       1.3 試驗設計
      試驗設4個處理,t0:不施化學氮肥(ck);t1:施氮量93.0 kg/hm2;t2:施氮量138.0 kg/hm2;t3:施氮量183.0 kg/hm2。各處理施用p2o5 67.5 kg/hm2、k2o 234.0 kg/hm2,具體施肥方法見表1。3次重復,每小區植煙2行,每行30株,植煙密度為120 cm×60 cm。[論文網] 
       1.4 移栽日期
      2011年12月25日播種,2012年2月15日移栽。行株距為120 cm×60 cm。
      1.5 調查測定
      調查煙葉生育期(移栽期、團棵期、現蕾期、打頂期、初烤期、終烤期)、農藝性狀、各小區煙葉產量、產值。各處理取c3f、b2f各2 kg,分析化學成分。
      2 結果與分析
      2.1 不同處理對煙株生育期的影響
      從表2可以看出,t0處理團棵和現蕾推遲,各部位葉落黃較快,表現為脫肥早衰,影響煙葉的產量和質量。t1、t2、t3處理表現為隨著施氮量的提高,煙株團棵和現蕾正常,但各部位煙葉落黃延遲。其中,以t2處理煙葉落黃適中,t1處理煙葉落黃稍早,t3處理稍遲。說明營養供應與煙草的生長發育有關,營養不良會導致煙株生育期提前,提前現蕾,提前落黃;而供應充足的營養,煙株正常現蕾,正常成熟;營養供應過量,會延遲成熟落黃。
       2.2 不同處理對煙株農藝性狀的影響
      從表3可以看出,t0處理各農藝性狀表現最差,葉數最少,株高最矮,中上部葉長寬最小。t1、t2、t3處理表現為隨著施氮量的提高,表現為葉數增多、株高增高、中上部葉長寬增長,并且以t3處理葉片最長、最大,株高最高。說明增施氮可以促進煙株的生長發育,促進葉片的形成生長。在一定范圍內,隨著施氮量的增加,煙株葉數增加,株高增高,葉片增長增寬。
       2.3 不同處理對煙葉經濟性狀的影響
      從表4可以看出,產量以t3處理最高,t2處理次之,t0處理最低,t2、t3處理產量顯著高于t1處理(p<0.05),t1處理產量顯著高于t0處理(p<0.05),t2處理與t3處理之間的產量差異不顯著;產值以t2處理最高,t3處理次之,t0處理最低;t2、t3處理產值顯著高于t1處理(p<0.05),t1處理產值顯著高于t0處理(p<0.05),t2處理與t3處理之間的產值差異不顯著;t1、t2、t3的均價顯著高于t0處理(p<0.05),但t1、t2、t3處理之間差異不顯著;t2處理的上等煙比例顯著高于t1處理(p<0.05),t1處理的上等煙比例顯著高于t0處理(p<0.05),t2處理與t3處理之間的差異不顯著;t1、t2、t3的中等煙比例顯著高于t0處理(p<0.05),但t1、t2、t3處理之間差異不顯著。從表5可以看出,在該試驗條件范圍,煙葉產量有隨著施肥量增加而增加的趨勢,但煙葉產值在低施肥量時隨施肥量增加而增加,超過一定范圍,隨施肥量增加而減少。
       2.4 不同處理對煙葉化學成分的影響
      從表5、6可以看出,在該試驗條件范圍,中部煙葉總糖、還原糖、糖堿比、氮堿比有隨施肥量增加而減少的趨勢,煙堿、總氮、鉀離子含量有隨施肥量增加而增加的趨勢。上部煙葉總糖、還原糖、糖堿比有隨施肥量增加而減少的趨勢,煙堿、總氮、鉀離子含量、蛋白質含量有隨施肥量增加而增加的趨勢。綜合比較,t1、t2、t3處理化學成分較協調。
       3 結論與討論
      (1)該試驗結果表明,隨著化學氮肥用量的增加,各處理煙葉落黃延遲,葉數增多,株高增高,中上部葉長寬增長。施93.0 kg/hm2化學氮煙葉落黃稍早,煙株農藝性狀表現較差,而施183.0 kg/hm2化學氮煙葉落黃較遲,煙株葉片最長、最大,株高最高,以施138.0 kg/hm2化學氮煙葉落黃適中,煙株長勢長相較好。
       (2)隨著施化學氮的增加,煙葉產量增加;在低氮水平時,隨著施化學氮的增加,煙葉產值增加,但超過一定水平,隨著施化學氮的增加,煙葉不再繼續增加。從該試驗結果看,最適宜施化學氮138.0 kg/hm2,產量可達2 245.5 kg/hm2,產值可達46 032.75元/hm2,施化學氮93.0 kg/hm2會使產量降低,產值降低;施化學氮183.0 kg/hm2,煙葉上中等煙比例降低,煙葉均價下降,煙葉產值降低。
       (3)從煙葉化學成分來看,在該試驗條件范圍,中部煙總糖、還原糖、糖堿比、氮堿比有隨施肥量增加而減少的趨勢,煙堿、總氮、鉀離子含量有隨施肥量增加而增加的趨勢。上部煙總糖、還原糖、糖堿比有隨施肥量增加而減少的趨勢,煙堿、總氮、鉀離子含量、蛋白質含量有隨施肥量增加而增加的趨勢。有研究表明,烤煙的糖堿比是其香氣風格的重要標志[3],隨著煙葉香氣類型由濃香型過渡到清香型,煙葉的總糖、還原糖含量逐漸升高,煙堿含量逐漸下降,糖堿比上升。從該試驗來看,無論中部葉還是上部葉,糖堿比均與施化學氮量呈負相關,因此在不降低煙葉品質的條件下,增施化學氮量應有利于彰顯煙葉的濃香型風格特色。
       4 參考文獻
      [1] 韓富根,沈錚,李元實,等.施氮量對烤煙經濟性狀、化學成分及香氣質量的影響[j].中國煙草學報,2009(5):38-42.
      [2] 孟智勇,曹曉濤,張東峰,等.施氮量對濃香型烤煙農藝性狀及品質的影響[j].湖南農業科學,2013(13):55-58.
      [3] 李旭華.廣東濃香型特色煙葉關鍵生產技術理論與應用[m].廣州:華南理工大學出版社,2011.

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