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    2種催熟藥劑對油菜成熟期生長發育的影響

    原文作者:王同華、陳衛江、王建喜

     摘要 為研究草甘膦和百草枯在化學催熟過程中對油菜生長發育的影響,對在不同時期化學催熟的油菜千粒重、含油量、種子干重占角果干重比例及最終產量進行分析,結果表明:利用草甘膦催熟處理,對油菜千粒重、含油量和種子干重占角果干重比例的形成無明顯影響,4月22日以前催熟處理會影響油菜的產量;在4月28日以前利用百草枯催熟處理,會導致油菜千粒重、含油量、種子干重占角果干重比例及產量的明顯降低。在生產上建議草甘膦以成熟前中期噴施效果較好,百草枯在收獲前1周噴施可避免對產量造成損失。
       關鍵詞 催熟劑;油菜;生長發育
      中圖分類號 s565.4 文獻標識碼 a 文章編號 1007-5739(2013)20-0016-02
      機械化收獲可以明顯減輕油菜收獲時的勞動強度,降低生產成本,是油菜生產發展的必然方向,有利于我國油菜生產的規模化、集約化發展。但油菜不同于禾本科作物,由于其花期長,分枝多,在自然條件下角果成熟期差異大,機械化收獲時未成熟的種子脫粒困難,因此實現機械化收獲必須克服角果成熟不一致的難題。而化學催熟技術是促進油菜成熟期一致的一種有效的方法,對減少機械化收獲的損失作用明顯。
       目前,用于油菜化學催熟的催熟劑,其有效成分主要是外源激素和部分除草劑[1-2]。除草劑主要是通過脫水催枯的方式快速降低油菜秸稈和角果的含水量,促進油菜成熟。已有報道,在油菜收獲前噴施百草枯、草甘膦、草胺磷、敵百草等除草劑,能明顯促進油菜成熟[2-4],但關于催熟劑噴施時間及對影響角果生長發育的影響相關研究較少。www.zhidachem.com該研究選用草甘膦和百草枯2種常用油菜化學催熟藥劑,在不同時期進行噴施,通過油菜千粒重、含油量種子干重占角果干重比例及產量等相關指標的分析,探討油菜化學催熟劑適宜的噴施方法,以為篩選適合油菜機械化收割的化學催熟方法提供理論依據。
       1 材料與方法
      1.1 試驗材料
      供試材料為半冬性甘藍型油菜雜交品種灃油737,由湖南省作物研究所選育并提供。種子室內ssr檢測純度為93%,一致性較高。2010年9月29日播種于湖南省作物研究所試驗場,廂寬2.0 m,行距0.3 m,每行留苗18~20株,田間管理參照常規方法進行。[論文網] 
       供試藥品為市場上購買的草甘膦和百草枯2種除草劑,其中百草枯為西安奇特農化生物科技有限公司生產,草甘膦為美國孟山都公司生產。
      1.2 試驗方法
      試驗的2種藥品分別設2個處理濃度和4個處理時期,每處理3個重復。其中,草甘膦的濃度為1‰與2‰;百草枯的濃度為1%與2%,用量均為75 ml/m2。4月8日開始催熟處理,每隔6 d進行1次處理,遇陰雨天依次推遲。4月10日開始每隔2 d調查已處理供試材料的千粒重、含油量以及種子重占角果重的比例,5月4日將各處理同時收獲測產。
       2 結果與分析
      2.1 化學催熟劑對千粒重變化的影響
      由圖1可知,用1‰、2‰草甘膦催熟后的油菜千粒重變化與ck無明顯差異,而用1%、2%百草枯催熟的油菜千粒重較ck明顯減少,特別是2%百草枯處理導致油菜過早枯死而絕產。由圖2可知,用1‰草甘膦在4個時期進行催熟處理,均未導致千粒重較ck發生明顯變化。而用1%百草枯在不同時期進行催熟,4月22日之前用1%百草枯進行催熟,將導致油菜千粒重較ck明顯下降(圖3)。
       2.2 化學催熟劑對種子含油量的影響
      4月22日用1‰草甘膦與1%百草枯處理后的供試材料種子,經近紅外分析測定含油量,由圖4可知,1‰草甘膦處理的種子含油量與ck無明顯差異,而1%百草枯處理的含油量在處理4 d后迅速下降,收獲后的種子含油量明顯低于ck。
       2.3 化學催熟劑對種子干重占角果干重比例的影響
      由圖5可知,2個濃度的草甘膦催熟處理后的種子干重占角果干重比例變化與ck之間無明顯差異,而2個濃度的百草枯催熟處理后上述比例變化明顯低于ck,到收獲時百草枯處理的種子干重占角果干重比例明顯低于ck,其中2%百草枯處理植株過早枯死而絕產。
       2.4 不同時期催熟處理對產量的影響
      由圖6可知,利用草甘膦催熟處理較百草枯對油菜產量的形成影響相對較小。草甘膦在4月22日以后催熟處理不會對油菜產量造成較大影響,百草枯在4月28日以后催熟處理不會對油菜產量造成明顯影響,可能與該2種藥品的藥理機制有關,草甘膦為內吸性除草劑,藥效發揮較慢,而百草枯為觸殺性除草劑,藥效發揮較快,通過脫水催枯的方式快速降低油菜秸稈的含水量,破壞光合作用的正常進行,進而促進油菜成熟。
       3 討論
      草甘膦和百草枯是用于油菜化學催熟的2類不同的催熟藥物,其作用機理和作用方式均不相同。草甘膦是通過競爭性抑制莽草酸途徑中5-烯醇丙酮莽草酸-3-磷酸合成酶的活性,從而導致植株體內芳香族氨基酸合成受阻,使其缺少相應蛋白促使角果和植株死亡,藥效反應慢,一般用藥后7~10 d才發揮作用[5]。其作用機理可以解釋該研究中草甘膦的催熟作用較緩慢,對油菜生長發育的傷害小,催熟后的油菜千粒重和含油量等指標變化與對照間差異不明顯的現象;百草枯主要依靠其二價陽離子通過光和系統ⅰ還原為一價陽離子(pq+),pq+迅速將氧還原為過氧化物,過氧化物通過haberweiss反應產生羥基,導致植物細胞死亡[6]。其藥效反應非常快,噴藥幾小時后即可見明顯藥害癥狀。該研究中,百草枯處理后對油菜千粒重、含油量等指標產生明顯的不利影響,主要是因為百草枯迅速造成油菜角果皮葉綠素和類胡蘿卜素的急劇下降,光合作用率隨之迅速下降,干物質積累得到較大的抑制,因而導致其千粒重、含油量、產量等指標大幅下降。
       綜合2種藥物對油菜生長發育產生的影響,筆者認為草甘膦催熟效果緩慢,但對油菜后期發育傷害較小,在油菜收獲前12 d左右噴施較好;百草枯作用迅速,對油菜后期發育影響明顯,適合在收獲前5 d噴施,但若遇噴施后連陰雨天,可能會導致催熟后的油菜難以收獲,存在一定的生產風險。另外,該2種催熟藥物均為化學除草劑,實際應用時必須考慮催熟后的種子與土壤中的殘留對食品和下一茬作物的影響,以保證食品和生態環境的安全。
       4 參考文獻
      [1] 肖文娜,周克金.作物化學催熟技術的研究與應用[j].湖北農業科學,2010,49(7):1722-1725.
      [2] 周可金,官春云,肖文娜,等.催熟劑對油菜角果光合特性、品質及產量的影響[j].作物學報,2009,35(7):1369-1373.
      [3] 官春云,譚太龍,陳社員,等.油菜化學催熟研究初報[j].作物研究,2008,22(3):154-159.
      [4] 周可金,官春云,肖文娜.化學催熟劑對油菜角果葉綠素含量及抗氧化酶系統的影響[j].應用生態學報,2009,20(12):3015-3019.
      [5] 許恩光.農達(草甘膦)使用技術簡介[j].林業科技通訊,2000(3):39-40.
      [6] 張朝賢,錢益新,付仲文.百草枯生產工藝改進及其應用前景[j].植物保護,1999(4):41-43.

     

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