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    底施不同用量的硼砂對油菜生產的影響

    原文作者:陸建平、張小平、侯立志等

     摘要 開展油菜底施硼砂不同用量試驗,結果表明:底施硼砂能有效增加油菜主花序長度、一次有效分枝數,每莢粒數,從而能明顯增產。底施硼砂的適宜范圍為11.25~15.00 kg/hm2,如果超量使用,會產生負面效果。
       關鍵詞 油菜;底施硼砂;用量
      中圖分類號 s565.4;s143.7+1 文獻標識碼 a 文章編號 1007-5739(2013)20-0011-02
      靖江市常規種植油菜,一般都種在十邊隙地,邊邊角角,而這部分土壤為長江沖積平原后,再由河道疏通開挖堆積而成,壤土肥力水平一般,保肥保水性能不理想,產量只能維持在2 250 kg/hm2左右[1-2]。即使一部分精耕細作的農戶,產量水平也難以突破。為了突破肥料投入與產出的瓶頸,利用微量元素硼來調節油菜的吸肥和利用水平,旨在打破制約瓶頸。
       1 材料與方法
      1.1 試驗地概況
      試驗地位于靖江市現代農業科學研究所的試驗基地內。土壤肥力中等,沒有施用過含硼肥料。
      1.2 試驗材料 [論文網]
      供試油菜品種:灃油737;供試硼砂:網購的農業用硼砂。
      1.3 試驗設計
      試驗設6個處理,分別為底施硼砂0(ck)、3.75 kg/hm2(a)、7.50 kg/hm2(b)、11.25 kg/hm2(c)、15.00 kg/hm2(d)、18.75 kg/hm2(e)。www.zhidachem.com3次重復,隨機區組設計。區組沿著土壤肥力遞變的方向設置。小區面積30 m2,長寬比3∶10,小區間隔離排水溝。供試硼肥一律采用底施,注意施用均勻,以免局部富集,產生毒害。采用與復合肥混合施用,底肥不施用有機肥[3]。各小區基本苗一致,平均為12.3萬株/hm2。田間管理遵循“最適”和“一致”的原則,除試驗因素外,其余各項管理措施一致。
       2 結果與分析
      2.1 不同處理對油菜產量的影響
      與ck對比可以看出,底施不同量硼砂均能不同程度地提高油菜產量。5種用量中,以施15.00 kg/hm2的處理增產幅度最大,較ck增產346.67 kg/hm2,增幅15.4%;其次是底施11.25 kg/hm2的處理,比ck增產273.33 kg/hm2,增幅12.1%。增幅最小的是底施3.75 kg/hm2的處理,增產53.33 kg/hm2,增幅2.4%(表1)。5種用量中,平均增產217.33 kg/hm2,增幅9.7%。同時5種用量中,施18.75 kg/hm2的處理,其增產幅度明顯低于底施15.00 kg/hm2的處理,甚至比底施11.25 kg/hm2的處理低。這種現象說明,硼砂的使用,在靖江市并不是越多越好,使用不當,不僅不能增產,反而會產生藥害。
       對產量進行方差分析,結果表明處理間達極顯著差異,f值=125.382 9**>>f0.01=5.64。plsd測驗結果表明,除處理c和處理e之間無顯著差異外,其余各處理間均達極顯著差異(表2)。
       2.2 不同處理對油菜產量構成的影響
      試驗小區采用手工移栽,所以各處理的基本苗一致,為12.3萬株/hm2。單株有效莢果數:只要底施了硼砂的處理,其單株有效莢果數均比ck有所增加,增幅最大的為處理d,增加31.41粒,增幅8.04%;增幅最小的為處理a,增加5.13粒,增幅為1.31%,但不同處理間沒有明顯的規律可循。每莢粒數:與單株有效莢果數相同,底施硼砂后,能不同程度增加每莢粒數,5個處理中,增加最多的是處理d,增加0.99粒,增幅6.00%;其次是處理e,增加0.93粒,增幅5.64%;增加最少的為處理a,增加0.14粒,增幅0.85%。不同處理間表現為硼砂在3.75~15.00 kg/hm2用量范圍內,隨著用量的增加,增加每莢粒數的效果越明顯,但硼砂用量達到18.75 kg/hm2后,效果反而降低[4-6],這也是對產量限制的原因之一。千粒重:底施硼砂的處理均比ck增加,增幅在0.30%~0.91%,但由于增幅較小,考慮試驗誤差因素,故不作為增產因素分析。綜合分析產量構成四因素,底施硼砂主要能促進有效莢果數和每莢粒數的增加,但超出適宜用量后,對每莢粒數將起負面作用,在生產中值得引起重視。對粒重變化幅度較大的品種,今后應進一步研究硼砂能否起到調控作用。
       2.3 不同處理對植株性狀的影響
      通過成熟期對各處理植株性狀的考察,底施硼砂的各處理植株均明顯增高,5個處理平均增高6.6 cm,增幅6.08%。其中,最高的是處理d,比ck增高9.6 cm,增幅8.8%;其次是處理b和處理c,分別較ck增高7.9、7.4 cm,增幅分別為7.3%、6.8%。但處理e卻沒有處理d、b、c的效果明顯,分析為超量使用出現負面效果。底施硼砂能有效增長主花序長度,5個處理平均增長5.76 cm,增幅11.3%。其中,增效最明顯的是處理d,增加8.7 cm,增幅17.1%;增效最小的是處理a,增加1.9 cm,增幅3.7%;處理e增效不如處理b、c、d,說明硼砂底施不宜超量。各處理主花序莢果數也是影響每株莢果數的因素之一,只要底施硼砂均能不同程度增加主花序莢果數,平均增加3.53莢,增幅4.8%。增效最明顯的是處理d,較ck增加5.9個,增幅8.0%;其次是處理c,增加4.16個,增幅5.7%;處理b、e增幅分別達4.6%、4.3%。不同處理對一次有效分枝數的影響也是提高每株莢果數的因素之一。不同硼砂底施均能較大幅度增加一次有效分枝數,5個處理平均增加1.28個,增幅達10.2%。其中,增效最明顯的是處理c,較ck增幅13.5%,其次是處理d和處理b,增幅均在10%以上,分別達12.7%、11.9%(表3)。結合底施硼砂對主花序長度、主花序莢果數和一次有效分枝的分析,能更明確地看到底施硼砂的作用點和作用效果。同時,也可看到超量底施硼砂的限制點,因此生產中應充分掌握硼砂的作用效果和使用方法。
       3 結論與討論
      (1)底施硼砂能有效增加油菜主花序長度、一次有效分枝數(兩者決定了每株莢果數的增加)、每莢粒數,從而能明顯增產。底施硼砂的適宜范圍為11.25~15.00 kg/hm2,如果超量使用,會產生負面效果,生產中一定要慎用。
       (2)從施用硼砂后對產量、產量構成及影響產量構成因素的分析,其作用效果主要表現在中后期,因此可考慮調整硼砂的施用時期(底施改中后期噴施),以提高效果[7]。另外,為防止硼砂施用后植株增高,后期易倒伏,考慮與多效唑結合使用。鑒于硼砂底施的明顯效果,其科學的使用方法和最佳的使用時期,還值得進一步試驗研究。
       4 參考文獻
      [1] 李然.中國油菜生產的經濟效率分析[d].武漢:華中農業大學,2010.
      [2] 楊紹聰,陳素珍,呂艷玲.普鈣與硼砂配施對油菜經濟性狀及產量的影響[j].土壤肥料,1998(1):42-44,18.
      [3] 楊建群.優質油菜施用硼肥技術[j].安徽農業,1997(9):17.
      [4] 李孟良,劉芳榮,馬榮浩,等.油菜鋅硼配合施用效果研究[j].安徽技術師范學院學報,2003(1):42-43.
      [5] 張澤彥,張學斌,石明義.油菜硼肥效應與使用技術研究[j].河南農業科學,1996(12):16-17.
      [6] 張禮福.油菜底施硼肥及其后效的研究[j].中國油料,1995(2):44-46,56.
      [7] 田昌.不同肥料配比與用量對冬油菜的生長效應[d].長沙:湖南農業大學,2011.

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