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    巧設對比實驗 提高課堂效率
    【摘 要】實驗,是學習化學不可缺少的特征,把課本上的實驗稍作改變和調整,采用多人對比實驗的策略,在有限的時間內,高效完成教學任務,在形成和諧課堂氛圍的同時,全面實現課堂教學價值。
      【關鍵詞】設計;對比;實驗;課堂效率
      第七屆國際化學教育會議的課程專題討論會上指出,各種課程改革中涌現的一個最恒定的趨向是“走向實驗”,“我聽見而我忘記,我看見而我記得,我親手做而我理解”的格言經常被引用來說明化學實驗的重要性。一節課40分鐘,高一化學是一周三課時的國家標準,往往有探討實驗的課時,難于完成教學任務,面對新課程的教學,該如何去平衡實驗、時間、課堂效率三者之間的矛盾呢?我經過摸索實踐,設計課堂上多人對比實驗操作,能提高課堂教學效率,效果不錯,現在把我的多人對比實驗法,舉幾例與大家分享,希望能“拋磚引玉”。
      學習《必修1》第一章的“萃取”時,“萃取”知識在課本中只有三行半和一個四氯化碳萃取碘的實驗,而“萃取”是高考的一個考點,如何讓學生掌握?光憑老師用嘴去講,難以讓學生產生深刻印象,“百聞不如一見,百看不如一做”,我就設計了多人對比實驗,當學生了解萃取的含義后,我仔細講解了分液漏斗的使用方法,然后用表格展示四個對比實驗和實驗的步驟,第一個實驗是四氯化碳與碘水的萃取;第二個實驗是四氯化碳與溴水的萃取;第三個是苯與碘水的萃取;第四個是苯與溴水的萃取。我請三位學生上講臺,拿取與實驗編號相同的分液漏斗,和老師同時展示對比實驗操作,每個人面前的實驗盒里已經放好了實驗藥品及儀器,面向全體學生,我們按實驗步驟進行對比實驗操作,我們四人所用儀器相同,操作步驟也相同,就是所取藥品不一樣,在操作時,老師邊操作邊講解儀器的拿法和用法,我們操作完成后,讓在座的同學點評我們四個人的實驗操作能力、實驗中出現的問題及實驗現象,學生點評中出現的疑問,再由老師進行講解。www.zhidachem.com我們教師不要忽視學生的能力,通過這種對比演示實驗,學生把有關中學萃取實驗的問題都能很好地掌握,同時做了四個實驗,動手的學生少了點,但便于組織教學和管理學生。
      學習《必修2》第一章關于堿金屬元素的知識時,對于同主族元素金屬活潑性變化規律,教材安排了鈉、鉀與水的反應,在前一天安排了學生進行預習,學生知道有實驗,積極性很高,我講到要做實驗處,沒有直接讓學生進行實驗,因為該實驗存在一定危險性,而是先提問該實驗反應是否劇烈?有學生上網查過該實驗,所以在回答問題時,能把實驗中的現象、注意事項和操作程序都能敘述較全面,這次,我把預習較好的兩位同學請上講臺,同時進行對比實驗的操作,其他同學在以后的預習中,會更加仔細和用心了,當然預習好的同學做實驗不一定動手能力就強,觀察同學就有機會提出問題和自己的觀點。接著學習第三周期元素性質的遞變性時,我增加了對比實驗,預習好的同學有機會操作鈉、鎂、鋁與鹽酸和水的反應,課堂上我叫6位同學同時進行實驗,由于經過了高一上半年的訓練,大部分學生能掌握試管、滴管和酒精燈的使用,老師只需要稍做點撥,學生們能順利完成,出現的小問題,在座的各位學生都會擦亮眼睛及時給予指正的。
      學習《必修2》基本營養物質時,要學習①糖類、油脂、蛋白質的組成;②糖類和蛋白質的特征反應;③糖類、油脂、蛋白質的水解反應;④還有糖類、油脂、蛋白質在生產生活中的作用。本節內容多、知識散、實驗也多,而大綱要求是一課時完成,對于①②④學生在預習、實驗的基礎上,能順利完成達標練習,只有③的水解反應是教學的難點,尤其是蔗糖的水解反應,涉及到催化劑、產物驗證、驗證前調節溶液的酸堿性等等,如何在有限的課堂時間內突破這個難點,我設計了對比實驗,由三位同學協作完成。實驗時三位同學分別取對應的標號試管,先由①號同學發布指令:“往試管中加入一滴管的蔗糖溶液”,三位同學同時操作;再由②號同學發布指令:“再往試管中加入3滴稀硫酸”,只有②號③號同學操作;此后三位同學都把試管放入老師正在石棉網上加熱的沸水中,3分鐘后,同時拿出試管;③號同學邊敘述邊操作:“往試管中加入2滴酚酞,溶液什么顏色?振蕩,再逐滴加入氫氧化鈉溶液,為什么?發生了什么反應?加到一滴氫氧化鈉使溶液變紅,振蕩后紅色不消失,為什么?”只有③號同學操作。①號同學再次發布指令:“

    取一支試管,取一滴管氫氧化鈉溶液,再加入10滴硫酸銅溶液,振蕩,倒入水浴過的試管內,在酒精燈上加熱。”三位同學都操作。當③號試管出現磚紅色時,老師宣布全部停止加熱,學生通過對比實驗的觀察,很容易總結出蔗糖水解的條件,突破了本節課的難點。
      我這樣設計對比實驗,便于學生總結規律,大多數學生想上講臺做實驗、想被認可,這就調動了學生的熱情,也激發了學生動手動腦的能力,“取人之長,補己之短”,在互助互學中,增進友誼,增強班級凝聚力,也增強了學習化學的動力,從而提高了課堂效率。
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