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    高焓氣體發生器燃燒室熱防護設計

    【摘 要】 高焓氣體發生器是為高焓風洞提供高焓氣源的裝置,為了提高燃燒室的強度壽命,減少高溫熱流對燃燒室的燃燒室的影響,需要依據燃燒室的熱環境對其進行熱防護設計。本文分析了幾種常見的燃燒室熱防護方法,并對基本熱防護設計方案進行了總結歸納。
      【關鍵詞】 燃燒室熱防護 高焓氣體發生器 熱防護方法
      1 前言 熱環境
      根據化學平衡計算結果,單純燃料的分解溫度可達1600k,經過補充氮氣摻混后其平衡溫度為1170k左右。
      燃燒產物以很高的速度流過噴管。在此過程中,燃燒室單位時間、單位體積內可以產生很大熱流量,傳給燃燒室壁面的熱流量在臨界截面處高達(2-6)x10^7kcal(m^2.h),然而室壁允許通過的熱流量卻小得多,若不采取必要的防護措施,室壁溫度將會迅速提高,室壁的強度也會迅速降低,使得即使最耐熱的材料也可能失去可靠工作的必須強度。因此,燃燒室熱防護是必須解決的一個重要問題。
      2 熱防護方法
      燃燒室熱防護的有很多種類,大致可分為:外冷卻,內冷卻,容熱式冷卻,隔熱式冷卻,燒蝕式冷卻。而大多數熱防護的方法都是以冷卻為基礎的。
      在采用外冷卻的燃燒室中,燃氣傳遞給燃燒室室壁的熱量,由燃燒室室壁傳遞給液體或氣體冷卻劑,或者直接向周圍空間輻射。外冷卻中的對流冷卻是靠流經冷卻通道的冷卻劑通過對流換熱進行外冷卻,主要包括再生冷卻和排放冷卻。
      再生冷卻燃燒室室壁由內、外兩層壁面構成,冷卻劑經由集液器進入冷卻套,對燃燒室內壁進行對流冷卻。www.zhidachem.com通常選用冷卻性能好的一種推進劑組元作為冷卻劑,將這種組元的全部或部分流量用于冷卻。冷卻劑通過冷卻套時,帶走燃氣傳給推力室內壁的熱量,冷卻劑自身溫度升高,然后經噴注器進入燃燒室,內壁的傳出熱量被冷卻劑帶入燃燒室,得以“再生”,因此稱這種對流外冷卻方法為再生冷卻。
      排放冷卻是對流冷卻的另一種。與再生冷卻不同,用于排放冷卻的冷卻劑對推力室冷卻吸熱后不進入燃燒室參與燃燒,而是排放出去。直接排放冷卻劑會降低推力室比沖,因此需要盡可能減少用于排放冷卻的冷卻劑流量,同時只在受熱相對不嚴重的噴管出口段采用排放冷卻。還有一種是輻射冷卻,其熱流由燃燒產物傳給推力室,再由推力室室壁想周圍空間輻射散熱。輻射冷卻的特點是簡單、結構質量小。主要應用于大噴管的延伸段和采用耐高溫材料的小推力發動機推力室。
      在組織推力室內冷卻時,是通過在推力室內壁表面建立溫度相對較低的液體或氣體保護層,以減少傳給推力室室壁的熱流,降低壁面溫度,實現冷卻。內冷卻主要分為頭部組織的內冷卻(屏蔽冷卻)、膜冷卻和發汗冷卻三種方法。推力室采用內冷卻措施后,由于需要降低保護層的溫度,所以燃燒室壁面附近的混合比不同于中心區域的最佳混合比(多數情況下采用富燃料的近壁層),造成混合比沿燃燒室橫截面分布不均勻,使燃燒效率有一定程度的降低。
      膜冷卻與屏蔽冷卻類似,是通過在內壁面附近建立均勻、穩定的冷卻液膜或氣膜保護層,對推力室內壁進行冷卻,只是用于建立保護層的冷卻劑不是噴注器噴入的,而是通過專門的冷卻帶供入。冷卻帶一般布置在燃燒室或噴管收斂段的一個橫截面上。沿燃燒室長度方向上可以有若干條冷卻帶。為提高膜的穩定性,冷卻劑常常經各冷卻帶上的縫隙或小孔流入。
      采用發汗冷卻時,推力室內壁或部分內壁由多孔材料制成,其孔徑為數十微米。多孔材料通常用金屬粉末燒結而成,或用金屬網壓制而成。此情況下,盡可能使材料中的微孔分布均勻,是單位面積上的孔數增多。液體冷卻劑滲入內壁,建立起保護膜,使傳給壁的熱流密度下降。當用于發汗冷卻的液體冷卻劑流量高于某一臨界值,在推力室內壁附近形成的是液膜。當冷卻劑流量低于臨界值流量時,內壁溫度會高于當前壓力下的冷卻劑沸點,部分或全部冷卻劑蒸發,形成氣膜。
      除了以上熱防護外,還有其他熱防護方法如:燒蝕冷卻、隔熱冷卻、熱熔式冷卻以及室壁的復合防護等。
      3 高焓氣體發生器熱防護方案
      綜合上述方法結合實際情況,便得到高焓氣體發生器的熱防護方法。高焓氣體發生器的燃燒室與液體火箭發動機的不同,省去前面的推力室部分,使得其結構更簡單而有效。那么,所涉及到的熱防護即為對燃燒室室壁的熱防護部分。由于燃料進入燃燒室內迅速分解并放出大量

    熱,這樣在壁面的溫度最高可達3000k,這就需要對燃燒室壁面進行熱防護。從簡單、易行的角度考慮,如果采用外冷卻的方式,就需要燃燒室的做成內外兩層,燃料和冷卻劑的噴注形式要做特殊處理,考慮到所涉及的氣體發生器的體積較小,這樣會增加制作的復雜性和制作成本。而采用燒蝕冷卻、隔熱冷卻或者熱熔式冷卻更會增加設計難度及制作成本。那么,此時采用內冷卻的方式來看更為合適。內冷卻主要分為頭部組織的內冷卻(屏蔽冷卻)、膜冷卻和發汗冷卻三種方法。屏蔽冷卻是在推力室頭部噴注器最外圈、沿燃燒室壁附近設置一圈單元組直流式或離心式噴嘴,冷卻劑以一定的角度直接噴射在燃燒室內壁上,保證室壁附近某一種推進劑組元(例如燃料)有很大富余,形成一層溫度相對較低的保護層,將高溫燃氣與壁面隔開,祈禱隔熱的作用,這種熱防護的方法設計簡單,但是要特別注意燃料和冷卻劑噴注的方式;膜冷卻是通過在內壁面附近建立均勻、穩定的冷卻液膜或氣膜保護層,對燃燒室室壁進行冷卻,這種冷卻方式在冷卻的效果分析來較為可靠,而對設計要求以及加工工藝較高。采用發汗冷卻,推力室內壁或部分內壁由多孔材料制成,盡可能使材料中的微孔分布均勻,當液體冷卻劑滲入內壁,建立起保護膜,使傳給壁的熱流密度下降,從而降低壁面溫度。發汗冷卻的方法從經濟實用的角度看是不可取的。
      4 設計方案總結
      從經濟實用、簡單易行角度出發,選擇采用低溫液氮作保護劑,從燃燒室切向噴入來對燃燒室的壁面進行熱防護。一方面解決燃燒室壁面溫度過高的問題;另一方面可以解決液氮含量不足的問題。
      但由于需要降低保護層的溫度,所以燃燒室壁面附近的混合比不同于中心區域的最佳混合比(多數情況下采用富燃料的近壁層),造成混合比沿燃燒室橫截面分布不均勻,使燃燒效率有一定程度的降低。這就需要對之后的一系列設計及方案中重點解決這一問題。
      參考文獻:
      [1]周光坰,嚴宗毅,許世雄,章克本.流體力學(第二版)上冊[m].北京:高等教育出版社,2011,5.
      [2]楊立軍,富慶飛.液體火箭發動機推力室設計[m].北京:北京航空航天大學出版社,2013,10.
      [3]劉政崇.風洞結構設計[m].北京:中國宇航出版社,2005,5.

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  •  更新時間:2014-08-31 10:50:33  作者:佚名 [標簽: 氣體發生器 燃燒室 熱防護 ]
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