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    松花江流域農村貧困原因與水資源關聯性分析
    摘要:水資源是農業生產得以發展的必要條件,理清水資源與農民貧困的關聯性,對于化解水資源帶給農業生產的危害和幫助農民脫貧致富具有重大意義,本文分析了水資源與農村貧困的關系,為解決問題提供有力參考。
      關鍵詞:松花江流域;水資源;承載力
      中圖分類號:x522文獻標識碼:a
      1 水資源對松花江流域農業生產起著決定性作用
      水資源是農業生產必需的基本生產資料。與水資源因素直接相關的水、旱災害是流域農村貧困的第1威脅,2006年黑龍江省水旱災害面積相加占到全省耕地總面積的93%,如果疊加則占受災總面積的121%,因此,水資源對于松花江流域農業生產起著決定性的作用。
      2 水資源是松花江流域農民致病、致貧的重要因素
      水資源是農民生活必需的基本生活資料,黑龍江是我國農村飲水困難的重點省份之一。截至目前,全省農村人畜飲水困難村屯仍有6010個、困難人口313萬,另有220萬人飲用水質達不到生活用水衛生標準。“三肇加安達,一口大黃牙(氟斑牙)”,一度被人們用來描述黑龍江省高氟病區農民。當地飲用水又苦又澀,對生命有益的元素含量極低,當地草場豐富,是全省重要的農牧業基地,但由于人畜飲水中營養元素含量低,養牛戶要定期人工給奶牛補充營養。為了解除飲用水安全問題,當地一些地區在飲用水改良上做起文章。安達市黑魚泡村村民自籌資金搞引水安全工程,通過興修飲用水工程,用上了補充了各種微量元素的自來水,此舉不僅從根本上解決了大黃牙問題,而且使奶牛的出奶量、品質得到提高,1頭牛每天平均多產奶5kg。www.zhidachem.com但是由于農村基礎條件差,向安達市黑魚泡村這樣能夠用上安全自來水的村民畢竟是少數,飲水難問題依然是當地農民致病、致貧的主要原因之一。松嫩平原西部的克山、富裕、依安等地是全國克山病的高發區,根據各地進行的大量研究,發現與當地水質中缺乏某些人體需要的微量元素如se、mo、mg等有關。可以看出,水資源因素是松花江流域農民致病和農民致貧的重要因素。
      3 水資源運能可以緩解松花江流域農村貧困的交通壓力
      要致富先修路,貧困地區經濟發展、農民脫貧致富必須要加強與外界的溝通聯系。松花江流域雖然屬于鐵路網較為密集的地區,但仍然有眾多貧困地區不通火車;松花江流域地區處于東北凍土地帶,加之境內多山地丘陵,建造公路成本較高,因此貧困地區的公路通車里程遠低于全國平均水平。黑龍江省是全國重要的糧食生產基地,受交通條件限制,貧困地區農產品外運受到嚴重影響,農民豐收后糧食賣不出去、賣出去運不出去的現象非常普遍。松花江流域河流密布,水路發達,松花江、嫩江都具有良好的通航條件。但是由于各地政府對于水路運輸重視程度不夠,松花江流域水路運輸港口基礎較差,運輸能力有限,相關配套保障措施不完備,豐富的水路運輸能力并沒有得到有效的發揮。可以看出水資源是影響松花江流域農村因交通致困重要因素之一。
      4 水資源過度開采加重松花江流域農村貧困程度
      松花江流域水資源時空分布不均,南多北少,東多西少;夏秋多,冬春少,農業的季節性、區域性干旱缺水問題十分突出。由于缺水,農業產量低、產量不穩定。近年來,流域中小河流斷流的問題日益突出,斷流的時間及河段愈來愈長。而且,缺水已從西部、北部蔓延到東部、南部的許多地區,水資源的短缺已成為制約流域農業發展、農民致富的瓶頸。在這種情況下,松花江流域的水田種植面積每年都在以2位數遞增,過度的水田開發更加加重了松花江流域農業生產用水的負擔。
      松花江流域用水總量為304.51億m3,農業用水總量為207.37億m3,用水量約占流域總用水量的70%,由于灌溉方式落后,輸水渠道大部分是土渠,加上工程老化失修和配套不全,農業灌溉水的利用率只有40%,僅為發達國家的50%左右;單方水的糧食生產能力只有0.85kg左右,遠低于2kg以上的世界發達國家水平,水的浪費十分嚴重。水資源利用的效率低下加大了貧困農民取水成本,增加了貧困勞動力投入,對于松花江流域貧困現象的產生具有直接影響作用。
      5 水資源通過綠色農業影響松花江流域經濟發展
      松花江流域具有豐富的自然資源,發展特色養殖、種植業優勢得天獨厚;松花江流域自然環境開發程度較低,是綠色農業資源豐富的地區,發展高附加值農業,潛力巨大。這些都是當地農民脫貧致富的有利條件,近年來

    著東北老工業基地的振興,工業快速發展,流域地區從事農業生產所必須的水資源受到嚴重污染,農產品品質降低,綠色品牌影響力減弱,這些因素都對貧困地區的經濟發展帶來了嚴重制約。通過以上分析可以得出結論:水資源通過影響綠色農業發展間接影響了流域地區地域經濟的發展。
      6 教育通過水資源方式導致松花江流域農村貧困
      松花江流域地區農村人口教育文化程度低,對環境的保護意識差,多年的亂砍亂伐造成林木蓄積量急劇降低,水土流失嚴重,自然環境承載力降低,破壞了農業生產的穩定平衡環境;由于缺乏必要的科學知識,貧困農民無法掌握先進的灌溉技術、節水技術,勞動強度加大、勞動生產成本提高,通過農業生產獲得更高的收入可能性大大降低。可以看出,教育的不足可以通過水資源的方式導致農民貧困。
      松花江流域農村貧困的原因還有很多,由于地域性等原因,各地貧困的原因在側重點上,表現形式上也不盡相同。但是通過研究,還是在許多帶有共性的貧困原因上找尋到了水資源因素的痕跡,因此,松花江流域農村貧困與水資源之間存在著客觀必然的聯系。
      
      參考文獻:
      [1] 李廣賀. 水資源利用與保護[m]. 北京:中國建筑工業出版社, 2004:57-90.
      [2] 張麗. 水資源承載能力與生態需水量理論及應用[m]. 鄭州:黃河水利出版社, 2005:46-80.
      [3] 沈大軍. 水資源管理學概論[m]. 北京:科學出版社, 2004:50-79.
      [4] 李強. 中國水問題[m]. 北京:中國人民大學出版社, 2005:38-109.
      [5] 童星, 林閩鋼. 我國農村貧困標準線研究[m]. 中國社會科學, 1994(3):86-98.
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  •  更新時間:2014-08-11 23:41:23  作者:佚名 [標簽: 松花江 流域 水資源 性分 ]
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