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    我國農業技術創新問題研究
    摘要:農業技術創新是在有限土地資源條件下增加農作物產量的有效方法和途徑,以袁隆平水稻雜交技術為代表農業創新促進了我國農業發展。圍繞如何能夠進一步提高我國農業技術創新能力,分析了農業技術創新特征,探討了我國農業科技技術創新存在的問題,以期能夠對從事農業技術創新的科研人員提供一定幫助。
      關鍵詞:農業;科技;創新
      中圖分類號:f323.3文獻標識碼:a
      前言
      農業是國民經濟的基礎,在國民經濟中占有重要地位,農業技術創新能夠有效促進農業發展,對我國經濟發展和技術進步具有重要意義[1]。
      1 農業技術創新特征
      農業技術創新包括農業科學創新,創新成果的生產、推廣,以及對從事農業人員的培訓、銷售等內容。農業技術創新是一個全方位農業設計過程,可以理解為農業經濟創新,因為農業經濟與農業科技之間存在相互促進和相互完善的關系,農業經濟的發展能夠促進農業技術創新,而農業技術的創新又能為農業經濟帶來收入。農業技術創新包含著新技術創造、認識和掌握以及新技術應用、轉移和傳播,可以理解為是一個先進的由科研人員、相關行業、相關部門組成的完整系統,各要素相互補充、相互促進,其協調性決定了新的農業技術從產生到傳播應用的周期,各要素間的關系越協調,這個周期就越短。
      1.1 生物技術是主體
      生物技術包括基因工程、細胞工程、酶工程和發酵工程等內容,可以應用到農業科技創新中來。生物技術當中的基因工程,可以將人們需要的各種農作物特性保留下來,將不需要的隱藏或者剔除,經過基因工程培育的新品種具有抗性更強,產量很高、營養更豐富、能夠有效降低生產成本等優點。www.zhidachem.com袁隆平培育高產水稻就是利用基因工程,對不同品種的水稻進行雜交,獲取起其中優點最多的品種進行培植,取得成果之后進行推廣種植。美國科研人員將血紅蛋白基因轉移到玉米當中,既保留了原有品種的高產能力,還增加了玉米中的蛋白質含量。生物技術在現代農業技術創新中占據著重要地位,特別是其基因工程,對農業技術創新有著強力推動作用。
      1.2 周期長
      農業技術創新需要投入大量的人力、物力和時間,具有較長周期。農業技術創新,比如植物新品種選育,既需要一定時間來實現篩選,新品種也需要一定的時間來適應自然環境,因此農業技術創新具有周期長的特征。
      1.3 非理論性
      現代農業技術創新中常通過電腦進行虛擬技術方案實施,比如進行植物新品種種植后產量等數據的搜集。由于現實環境的復雜性,新的技術或品種在電腦模擬中表現出的優秀能力可能在實際種植中因受到自然環境的影響而降低。所以,農業技術創新具有一定的非理論性。
      1.4 必須具備可持續性
      可持續性是一項新的農業技術能夠生存下來所必須具備的特性之一,也是農業技術創新的核心與基本要求。農業技術創新的可持續性表現在:資源利用可持續性,農業技術創新須以生產力提高、自然資源合理利用、土地肥力提高為基礎,力求實現技術創新對環境無污染,實現資源可持續利用;可持續發展創新理念,農業科技創新須具有可持續發展理念,研究成果投入使用后應達到無公害、對食用者身體無影響等要求。只有符合以上特征才能被視為合格的農業技術創新。
      2 我國農業技術創新存在的主要問題
      2.1 與發達國家存在差距
      我國農業技術發展與發達國家相比有較大差距[2]。與發達國家相比,由于缺少強力的科技技術支撐,我國科學技術創新能力也相對較弱,即便有了好的創意也沒有相應的技術來實現。早在20世紀,美國等發達國家的農業生產總值和勞動生產就提高了1倍左右,而我國目前的農業生產總值也只是增長了一倍而已,這其中的差距是顯而易見的。
      2.2 單產水平低
      我國人均占有土地面積遠低于世界平均水平,能夠用來種植農作物的土地少之又少,且分布較為分散,土地單產能力較低。土地單產水平低的不僅體現在農作物種植上,經濟作物上也表現明顯。
      3 總結
      通過農業科技創新特征和我國農業科技創新現狀分析,可以看出我國農業生產較發達國家還相對落后,只有以農業科技創新為支撐,才能夠有效促進農業發展,提高我國農業發展水平。
      
      參考文獻
      [1] 彭蓉. 論我國農業技術推廣體系的現狀、問題和對策[j]. 農村經濟與科技, 2009.


      [2] 牛若峰. 農業與發展[m]. 浙江人民出版社, 2000.
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