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    探究瀝青混合料的攤鋪質量控制
    [摘 要]攤鋪施工是保證整個路面施工質量的重要基礎。本文針對瀝青混合料的攤鋪質量控制進行了闡述。
      [關鍵詞]瀝青混合料;攤鋪;質量控制
      中圖分類號:p632+.6 文獻標識碼:a 文章編號:1009-914x(2014)24-0198-01
      高速公路中,絕大多數都采用了瀝青路面,但是從國內己建成的高速公路瀝青路面使用狀況看,一些路段在通車后出現了較為明顯的早期破壞現象,如開裂、車轍、水損害等。這些病害直接導致了路面使用性能的下降,使一些路段建成后較短時間內就不得不進行大修,為此,有必要開展對于公路工程的瀝青混合料施工質量的控制研究。
      1.混合料離析的控制
      (1)全路幅一次攤鋪時,容易造成離析和壓實不足,因此攤鋪寬度不宜過大。分路幅多次攤鋪時,縱向接縫處兩側粗料較多,且難以壓實,平整度也不好。所以當采用分路幅多次攤鋪時,應采用多臺攤鋪機成梯隊作業的方式。
      (2)正確操作受料斗翼板,嚴禁受料斗內死料過多和翻轉過速。盡可能保持攤鋪機料斗內的余料均勻,保證連續均勻供料。嚴禁供料速度忽快忽慢、機械猛烈起步和緊急制動、攤鋪速度快慢不均。攤鋪速度確定后,應盡可能保持穩定和連續,速度以2~2.5m/min為宜。
      (3)螺旋布料器懸掛處的兩側出現的離析,可通過改變一側的螺旋方向來解決,即把正向螺旋葉片改為反向螺旋葉片。
      (4)調節料位傳感器,使螺旋布料器的轉速盡可能均勻,保持熨平板前料位均勻一致。確保螺旋布料器通道內的混合料左右流動通暢,攤鋪過程中混合料處于螺旋布料器直徑2/3的高度。www.zhidachem.com建議采用具有大直徑、低轉速螺旋布料器的攤鋪機,降低螺旋布料器的高度,并使混合料的高度超過螺旋布料器,這樣可以提高螺旋布料器的輸送率,降低轉速,減小不同粒徑顆粒之間的慣性差異。同時布料器埋于混合料中可以對混合料實現二次攪拌,從而減少離析。螺旋布料器的高度應根據攤鋪層厚度的變化進行調節。攤鋪層厚,螺旋布料器的高度要增大,反之減少。螺旋布料器太高,則供料慢,兩端供料不足。螺旋布料器太低,則阻力過大,供料不足。一般情況下,布料器下沿調至高出松鋪層10~12cm為宜。
      (5)對于有前后兩幅調拱機構的攤鋪機,其前拱拱度應調節的比后拱略大為宜。經驗表明,一般人工接長調寬的熨平板,其前后拱之差為3~4mm,液壓伸縮調寬的熨平板,差值以2mm為宜。前拱過大,中間部分混合料較多,于是出現中間緊密并刮出亮痕和縱向撕裂狀條紋。反之,前拱過小,甚至小于后拱,中間部分的混合料偏少,于是就會出現中間疏松,兩側緊密并被刮出亮痕和縱向撕裂狀條紋。
      (6)選擇振動系統的最佳振幅和振頻,可控制混合料的離析。振幅過大、振頻過高,會造成集料壓碎、細料上浮和泛油現象。振幅過小、振頻過低,則初密實度低,不利于壓實作業。實踐表明,采用abg423攤鋪機施工的瀝青路面,鋪層厚度為40~60mm,攤鋪速度在2~3m/min時,振動夯選擇振幅5mm,振頻20~22hz,熨平板振動器振動頻率選擇35~40hz,新鋪瀝青混合料能夠獲得較理想的初壓實度和平整度。
      (7)配合人工是保證攤鋪質量的必要措施。攤鋪過程中,對表面層的離析,應該及時人工補適量的細瀝青混合料予以補救。
      2、瀝青混合料攤鋪時的質量控制措施
      2.1 瀝青含量的直觀檢查
      如果瀝青料黝黑黝黑。料車上的混合料呈圓錐狀或混合料在攤鋪機受料斗中“蠕動”則表明瀝青含量正常。如果混合料特別黑亮,較車上的混合料呈平坦狀或瀝青結合料沒有充分烘干,表面上看起來瀝青太多,如果混合料呈褐色,暗而脆,粗骨料沒有較完全裹覆,受料斗中混合料不“蠕動”,則表明含量太少。
      2.2 混合料溫度
      瀝青混合料在正常攤鋪和碾壓溫度范圍內,往往冒出淡蘭色蒸氣。瀝青混合料產生黃色蒸氣或缺少蒸汽,說明溫度過高或過低。通常在料車到達工地時,測定混合料的溫度,有時在攤鋪機后測定。每天早晨要特別注意做這項檢查,因此時下承層表面溫度和氣溫都較低,平時只要混合料似有溫度較低現象或初次碾壓,而壓路機跟不上時,則應測定溫度。測量鋪層的溫度時,應將溫度計的觸頭插進未壓實的面層中部,然后把觸頭周圍輕輕用足踏實,目前也有許多地方采和電點溫計測定。
      2.3 厚度檢測
      攤鋪機在攤鋪過程中,應經常檢測虛鋪厚度。
      2.4 表觀

    檢查
      未壓實混合料的表面結構無論縱向或橫向都應均勻、平整、無撕裂、小波浪、局部粗糙、拉溝等現象,否則,查明原因,及時處理。
      2.5 攤鋪中的質量缺陷及防治對策
      攤鋪中常見的質量缺陷主要有:厚度不準、平整度差、混合料離析、裂紋、拉溝等。為了防止和消除在施工中可能發生的各種質量缺陷,應注意以下幾點:
      2.5.1 浪形基層的攤鋪。不必考慮攤鋪厚度的均一性,實際的混合料用量應比理論計算的要多。在波浪地段,即使攤鋪得很平整,在碾壓后仍會出現與基層相似的波形,因此對有大波浪的基層應在其凹陷處先鋪上一層混合料,并予以壓實。
      2.5.2 攤鋪機的操作及本身的調整攤鋪質量很大,攤鋪機速度的改變會導致攤鋪厚度的變化。為了保持恒定的攤鋪厚度。當速度變快時,厚度調節器就稍微向右轉動。當速度減慢時,則稍微向左轉動。其調整量還應根據混合料種類的不同而不同。
      2.5.3 瀝青混合料的性質也是影響攤鋪質量的主要原因之一。混合料的性質不穩定,易使攤鋪厚度發生變化。如果溫度過高,瀝青量過多,礦粉摻量過多等都會使鋪層變薄。
      2.5.4 瀝青混合料中的瀝青與礦粉過量減小其承載力,所以熨平板的工作迎角應增大,使鋪層增厚一些,這種混合料還容易受溫度的影響。一般溫度應控制在140~160℃的范圍內,當高于此范圍后,混合料變軟而承載力大大降低。溫度過低時,混合產又會變硬,當礦料中的大顆粒尺寸大于攤鋪厚度時,在攤鋪過程中該大顆粒被熨平板拖著滾動,使其最大粒徑小于攤鋪厚度的一半。
      3、瀝青混合料壓實時的質量控制措施
      3.1 碾壓溫度
      碾壓溫度和高低,直接影響瀝青混合料的壓實質量。在實際施工中,要求在攤鋪過程完畢后及時進行碾壓,一般來說。瀝青混合料的最佳壓實溫度110-120℃之間,最高不超過160℃。
      3.2 選擇合理的壓實速度與遍數合理的壓實速度
      對減少碾壓時間,提高作業效率有十分重要的意義。在施工中。保持適當的恒定碾壓速度是非常重要的。一般速度控制在2~4km/h,速度過低。會使攤鋪與壓實工序間斷,影響壓實質量,從而可能需要增加壓實遍數來提高壓實度。碾壓速度過快,會產生推移,橫向裂紋等。選擇碾壓速度的基本原則是:在保證瀝青混合料碾壓質量的前提下,最大限度地提高碾壓速度,從而減少碾壓遍數,提高工作效率。壓實質量的檢測應根據合同有關文件的規定及要求進行。主要檢測項目有壓實度,厚度,平整度,粗糙度,而且要求表現密實均勻。當瀝青混合料碾壓成型后,其缺陷一般很難修整。對于一些較大缺陷,如厚度不足,平整度太差,松散,泛油等應及時返工,即使已成型也要返工,對松散,泛油往往是局部返工,而對厚度不足或平整度太差的往往要求一段落返工。當然,經濟損失是較大的,因此,現場壓實過程中質量的檢查與問題的糾正是十分重要的,要努力把缺陷降低到最低程度,最好不出現返工現象。
      4.結束語
      瀝青路面的攤鋪技術是決定路面平整度、密實度和控制瀝青混合料離析率的關鍵工序,其操作好壞直接影響行車的舒適性和耐用性。因此要加強對公路瀝青混合料施工的質量實施質量控制與管理,以期從中能夠找到可行的有效的瀝青混合料施工工藝方法及質量管理方法。
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  •  更新時間:2014-08-11 23:41:49  作者:佚名 [標簽: 瀝青 混合料 攤鋪 質量控制 ]
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