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    煙氣汽化冷卻系統控制研究
    【摘 要】 噴霧冷卻塔具有換熱效率高、降溫迅速、適用煙溫范圍廣等特點,能將高溫煙氣“瞬間”降至設計要求,能有效抑制二噁英等有害致癌物質的生成。論文著重介紹了噴霧汽化冷卻系統的控制研究,采用雙調節量協調控制噴水量,使調節器快速響應高溫煙氣溫度變化,最終達到高溫煙氣迅速降溫目的,以珠鋼電爐煙氣噴霧汽化冷卻系統為實例驗證了該控制方法的可行性。
      【關鍵詞】 汽化冷卻系統 噴霧冷卻塔 汽冷煙道
      1 引言
      煉鋼電爐在生產過程中產生的高溫煙氣往往被引入預熱段內燃燒,預熱廢鋼后進入沉降室,然后再進行冷卻凈化,最終由風機經煙囪排入大氣。煉鋼電爐高溫煙氣冷卻過程中,由于廢鋼中含有聚氯乙烯(pvc)塑料、氯化油、溶劑及鹽類等化學物質,當高溫煙氣被冷卻到600~300℃時,其中的灰顆粒是形成致癌物質二噁英的催化劑。歐共體已制定出二噁英等有害致癌物質的排放標準,盡管我國暫時尚無相應的排放標準,但隨著我國對節能環保日益重視,有效控制煉鋼電爐煙氣冷卻系統使煙氣溫度在規定范圍內,防止二噁英致癌物質的產生刻不容緩。
      常見的高溫煙氣冷卻設備有:水冷煙道、自然對流空氣冷卻器、強制吹風冷卻器和汽化冷卻塔等。其中,自然對流空氣冷卻器通常適用于煙氣初始溫度在300~600℃的場合,強制吹風冷卻器一般也只用于冷卻600℃以下的高溫煙氣,而汽化冷卻塔可根據系統設計需要將煙氣溫度1000℃左右降到200℃左右,可避免有害物質的產生,溫度適用范圍廣,另外,汽化冷卻管道和噴霧蒸發冷卻塔若替代傳統龐大的水冷煙道,可以顯著降低設備投資和維修、運行費用,沒有水的二次污染,利于環境保護,對煉鋼電爐高溫煙氣的冷卻較為適宜。www.zhidachem.com
      2 噴霧汽化冷卻系統簡介
      煉鋼電爐生成的高溫煙氣可用作兩種處理,一是進入余熱鍋爐,回收電爐煙氣的余熱,產生低壓蒸汽,供應鋼廠生產生活,二是進入備用旁路系統,在垂直布置的圓柱形噴霧冷卻塔內,將水和壓縮空氣按一定比例送至特定的雙相流噴嘴內,將水霧化成細小的汽水混合物顆粒后直接由噴嘴噴向塔內高溫煙氣,水霧吸收熱量迅速蒸發,使高溫煙氣“瞬間”冷卻至設定的不飽和溫度,避免煙氣中在沉降室內燃燒分解的有害氣體再度化合,有效抑制二噁英等有害致癌物質產生。在噴水減溫的同時,煙氣中約有20%~30%的粉塵被凝聚成較大的干顆粒沉降在灰斗中,所以,噴霧冷卻塔不僅降低了煙氣溫度,而且也降低了煙氣中的含塵濃度和粉塵比電阻,它既能與布袋除塵器配套,也可與靜電除塵器配套,最終將處理后的低溫煙氣經風機排出。噴霧冷卻是煉鋼電爐煙氣流程圖見圖1。
      3 煙氣噴霧冷卻系統控制對象、方案研究及結果分析
      3.1 煙氣噴霧冷卻系統控制對象
      噴霧冷卻系統除了要有高品質的噴頭以外,與之相配套的管路控制也是極為關鍵的。噴霧冷卻塔是以噴水量作為調節量來控制噴霧冷卻塔出口溫度的,而噴水量由開啟的噴嘴數及每個噴嘴的噴水量決定。噴霧冷卻塔的噴嘴常成對相對安裝,調節噴水量時每次至少啟閉兩組相對安裝的噴嘴,本噴霧冷卻塔共有12組噴嘴,噴霧塔安裝8組噴嘴,噴霧冷卻塔前煙道上布置4組噴嘴,均為相對安裝。
      3.2 煙氣噴霧冷卻系統控制方案
      噴霧冷卻系統的被控量是噴霧冷卻塔出口溫度,控制目標是維持該溫度在允許的范圍內,控制流程圖見圖2。
      噴霧冷卻塔出口安裝三只熱電偶(信號三取二),用來檢測噴霧冷卻塔出口溫度,控制系統以此溫度為基礎,決定開啟噴嘴組的數量(即噴水量)。同時,小沉降室出口安裝三只熱電偶(該信號三取二)作用有二:一是檢測小沉降室出口溫度,二是當溫度發生大的變化時,控制系統提前響應溫度變化,從而改變冷卻煙氣所需要的噴水量,提高控制系統性能和控制精度。
      噴霧冷卻系統可視為以噴霧冷卻塔出口溫度為主要控制對象,以小沉降室出口溫度為輔助控制對象的控制系統。在控制過程中,首先根據小沉降室出口溫度進行粗調,然后再根據噴霧冷卻塔出口實際溫度值與設定值的差值變化進行細調。當設定好噴霧冷卻塔出口的溫度值后,一般情況下不用人為干預,系統就會自動調節噴水量。當出口溫度高于設定值時,系統自動增加噴水量;當出口溫度低于設定值時,系統自動減少噴水量,直到出口溫度與設定溫度的偏差在設定的誤差范圍內。(如圖3)
      3.3 控制結果分析
     

     珠鋼電爐采用水冷煙道時,經過水冷煙道冷卻后的煙氣溫度分布如圖4,可以看出,經過水冷煙道冷卻后(單壁管道的降溫暫忽略不計),機力風冷機進口的溫度基本在500℃以內,個別超過500℃。而當采用汽化冷卻時以及噴霧冷卻時,噴霧冷卻后煙氣溫度分布如圖5所示,可保證進入機力風冷機進口的溫度基本控制在450℃以下,可見根據小沉降室出口溫度進行粗調,再根據冷卻塔出口溫度進行細調,可有效克服控制延遲,迅速噴霧冷卻,使煙氣溫度“瞬間”達到設定要求。
      4 結語
      噴霧汽化冷卻系統作為一種高效冷卻設備,具有換熱效率高、適用范圍廣、降溫迅速等優點,且其設備運行阻力小、噪聲低、電耗省。對于煉鋼電爐這種650℃以上的高溫煙氣,采用噴霧汽化冷卻系統不但有助于煉鋼車間工藝設備的布置,而且解決了冷卻設備耐高溫材料的選用問題,同時可有效抑制電爐煙塵中二噁英的生成。另外,噴霧冷卻僅僅是作為補充冷卻,僅在煙氣超溫時啟用,啟用的時間較少,由于噴水量不大,煙氣的含濕量增加不多,能夠滿足目前除塵器濾料長期使用的要求,相信未來噴霧冷卻技術會越來越受到青睞。
      參考文獻:
      [1]王永忠,楊建平.蒸發冷卻的設計與應用分析[j].寶鋼技術,2004(5):35-38.
      [2]汪勝利,肖方錦,毛永華.噴霧蒸發冷卻塔首次在國內電爐除塵中的應用[j].冶金環境保護,2003(4):40-42.
      [3]高洪利,張晶.兩種窯尾增濕塔噴霧增濕降溫系統的應用[j].煅燒技術,2006(1):10-12.
      [4]譚沖,陸吉利.噴淋冷卻塔在consteel電爐上的應用[j].南方金屬,2006(148):47-48.
      [5]廖傳華,周玲,黃振仁.水泥行業用噴霧增濕塔的改型設計[j].環境污染治理技術與設備,2006,6(2):92-94.
      [6]廖傳華,高建,黃振仁.噴霧增濕塔用離心式霧化器的設計[j].環境污染治理技術與設備,2003,4(6):77-80.
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