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    表面蒸發式空冷器冷卻管束的清洗

    【摘 要】 根據表面蒸發式空冷器冷卻管束結垢的原因及現場狀況,采用化學藥劑清洗和高壓水射流清洗相結合的方法,有效地消除了管束結垢現象,保障了設備設施安全、穩定運行。
      

    【關鍵詞】 蒸發式空冷器 管束 結垢 化學清洗
      1 引言
      表面蒸發式空冷器是一種將水冷與空冷、傳熱與傳質的過程融為一體的新型冷凝、冷卻降溫設備。該設備具有能耗低、節水、占地面積小、安裝維護方便、傳熱效率高等特點,在冶金、電力、制冷等行業有廣泛的應用。現邯鋼5#高爐(2000m3)外噴淋冷卻系統由9臺zp9×3表面蒸發式空冷器組成,主要作用是為冷卻高爐爐體的密閉系統內軟化水的降溫。自設備投運以來,由于空冷器管束外部形成一層厚厚的硬垢,現場觀察垢厚約3~5mm,結垢嚴重的地方,管束與管束之間幾乎沒有縫隙,嚴重影響整個空冷器的冷卻降溫效果,同時垢下腐蝕嚴重,造成管束破裂漏損,不能確保設備設施的安全穩定運行。
      2 管束結垢的原因及危害
      表面蒸發式空冷器主要由風機、冷卻水管束、填料、噴頭、噴淋水管道泵、底部集水槽等組成。管道泵將底部集水槽中的水輸送到噴淋水分配器,由分配器(噴頭)將冷卻水向下噴淋到管束表面,噴淋水從上而下逐層滴落,在管束外表面形成水膜實現與軟水的熱交換,最后匯集到底部集水槽,從而形成噴淋水的循環利用。空冷器頂部軸流風機抽吸的空氣自下而上掠過水膜和管束,實現水膜的蒸發散熱、對流換熱。因空冷器冷卻水補水為河水,運行一段時間后,空冷器銅質管束表面出現結垢、腐蝕現象。www.zhidachem.com
      2.1 垢層形成的原因
      表面蒸發式空冷器冷卻水系統是開放式的循環系統,隨著水份的蒸發、風干,水中溶解的各種鹽類(如重碳酸鹽、碳酸鹽、硫酸鹽、硅酸鹽等)的濃度升高,一些鹽因過飽和加之溫度過高而析出,尤其以重碳酸鹽(如ca(hco3)2)最不穩定,極易受熱分解成碳酸鹽類沉積在金屬表面,其反應如下:
      另外,冷卻水通過冷卻塔相當于一個曝氣過程,溶解在水中的co2會逸出,因此水的ph值會升高。此時重碳酸鹽在堿性條件下發生如下反應:
      上述反應過程中生成的caco3屬微溶性鹽,溶解度比ca(hco3)2要小得多,同時,caco3溶解度是隨著溫度的升高而降低。因此在空冷器的傳熱表面上,這些微溶性鹽很容易達到過飽和狀態而從水中結晶析出。當水流速度較小或傳熱表面比較粗糙時,這些結晶沉積物就容易沉積在傳熱管束上,形成水垢。同時現場所使用的空冷器全部為室外安裝,環境中的粉塵、灰塵對其影響比較大,由于這些水垢結晶致密而且堅硬,在一定程度上也影響了冷卻降溫效果。空冷器管束結垢現象如圖1、圖2所示。
      2.2 垢層的危害
      (1)水垢沉積在管束表面,使空冷器管束中的軟水散熱困難,散熱能力大大降低,每1mm銅管的傳熱效果是1mm水垢的50~100倍。空冷器結垢會使管束截面積變小,造成冷卻水用量增大,介質不能與外界進行直接有效的熱交換,影響高爐供水水溫。(2)造成空冷器能耗的增大。在生產過程中,在銅冷卻管束外表面形成垢層較厚時,熱阻增大。所產生的水垢表面凹凸不平,阻礙噴淋水流形成水膜,減少了噴淋水和軟水的換熱面積。在水垢比較厚時,則需要多開幾臺甚至全開風機的情況下,來降低介質水溫來滿足生產。(3)結垢的部位易發生電化學腐蝕,造成空冷器冷卻管束泄漏,被迫將泄漏管束進行封堵,從而縮短了設備使用壽命,對生產造成一定的影響。
      3 水垢的清洗
      3.1 水垢的取樣分析
      從現場蒸發式空冷器管束上所取的水垢進行分析,水垢樣中的所含物質的含量如表1所示。
      通過對所采的水垢樣進行分析,水垢由各種化合物組成的混合物,顏色成黑黃色,其中包括灰塵及鐵的氧化物等,垢質外酥內硬。
      3.2 清洗的方案
      3.2.1 清洗藥劑的確定
      經與清洗單位進行小樣動態模擬試驗,篩選確定此次清洗的藥劑,為復合酸清洗,同時加入lx緩蝕劑、滲透劑、促進劑、抑制劑的混合藥劑進行清洗。清洗時抑制劑起到抑制金屬本體的腐蝕,滲透劑是對垢層的侵蝕剝離,促進劑增強清洗劑的活性,同時由于fe3+的濃度超過一定的限度,會加快銅管的腐蝕,因此在清洗液中加入fe3+抑制劑。
      3.2.2 清洗工序的確定
      因蒸發式空冷器的冷卻水可自成循環系統,因此可利用設備本身的循環系統作為清洗主系

    ,只需將配制好的清洗藥劑投加入空冷器集水槽內,整個清洗系統即可建立。清洗步驟如下:高壓水沖洗---殺菌粘泥剝離清洗---緩蝕處理---有機酸清洗除垢---高壓水沖洗。
      3.2.3 清洗的相關要求
      清洗的過程中,在集水槽內放置與管束相同材質(銅)的試片,要求管束的腐蝕率<2g/(m2.h),除垢率≥90%。清洗過程中所產生的廢水要執行gb8978-1996《污水綜合排放標準》的規定,不得污染環境,必須中和酸洗液至ph6-8后進行排放。
      3.3 清洗的效果
      3.3.1 水垢的去除
      經過對空冷器進行化學藥劑清洗和高壓水流沖洗后,管束上的污垢得以清除,銅管表面光滑,現金屬光澤。清洗完后的效果如圖3、圖4所示。
      但在清洗過程中,空冷器管束留有死角,存在清除不徹底現象,希望以后通過增加活動噴頭的方式,使得藥劑和管束的充分進行接觸,來提高除垢率。
      3.3.2 冷卻效果的改善
      清洗前,在系統27臺冷卻風機(單臺電機功率15kw)全開的情況下,爐體供水水溫在45~48℃之間,有時達到50℃;而清洗后,僅需開啟20~21臺風機的情況下,高爐供水水溫可下降到45℃以下,換熱效率大幅提升,滿足了高爐對水溫的要求,也為高爐的安全運行打下堅實的基礎;同時空冷器換熱效果的明顯提升,節約了運行成本,為減低能耗做出了貢獻。
      4 結語
      (1)采用化學藥劑清洗和高壓水流沖洗相結合的方法,很好地解決了空冷器管束表面硬垢和其他附著物的清洗問題,確保高爐安全穩定運行。(2)針對管束結垢的成因,對系統工藝進行改造,將開路凈環水作為系統冷卻水,同時對集水槽進行定期清理,減緩管束結垢現象,延長了設備使用壽命。
      參考文獻:
      [1]周本省.工業水處理技術[m].化學工業出版社,1997.
      [2]肖筱新,沈軍勇,石宏利.蒸發式空冷器的在線清洗預膜.清洗世界,2011.

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  •  更新時間:2014-08-31 10:52:03  作者:佚名 [標簽: 蒸發 空冷 冷卻管 清洗 ]
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