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    芻議初中漢語課堂教學
    在廣大農村,盡管漢語教學已受到普遍重視,教學質量也在不斷提高,但由于種種因素的制約,尤其在“應試教育”的左右下,漢語教學大多是把傳授知識作為主要目標,重視學生成績高低,忽視學生的全面發展;重視“教”,而忽視“學”;重視現成結論的記憶,忽視學習過程;重視向學生灌輸,忽視學生的主動參與;重視教學活動的嚴格劃一,忽視學生的創造才能和個性差異;重視基礎知識的傳授,忽視對學生聽、說、讀、寫語言交際能力的培養等等。這些現象都無疑違背了語言教學規律,結果是教師把-門活生生的語言實踐課,上成了枯燥乏味,毫無生機的呆板課。學生學了幾年漢語,到頭來耳聽不懂,口不能言,兩極分化嚴重,語言運用能力極差,導致了教學質量的嚴重滑坡。漢語教學出現了嚴重危機。如何在漢語課堂教學中體現、滲透素質教育,使學生快樂學習漢語,提高漢語教學質量,筆者認為,首先必須做到以下幾點:
      一、使機械學習變快樂學習
      實現從應試教育向素質教育的轉軌,“素質教育”是針對“應試教育”的弊端提出來的。素質教育是以提高人的素質為目的的教育,它與“應試教育”的主要不同在于教育觀、質量觀、學生觀、教學觀的不同。從培養目標看,素質教育力求德、智、體、美、勞全面發展,應試教育只重視智育;從對待學生看,素質教育而向全體學生,而應試教育只面向少數成績好的學生。從教學內容看,素質教育著眼于素質的全面提高,應試教育強調考什么教什么,不考不教;從教學過程看,素質教育注重啟發學生生動活潑、自主地學習,應試教育則是老師一講到底,忽視了學生的主動參與;從教學方法看,素質教育是師生雙向活動,重視學科能力的提高,變講授知識為訓練綜合技能,應試教育則不論學生層次與個性差異滿堂灌,大搞題海戰術,學生被動、機械地學習,作業負擔過重,心理負擔過重。www.zhidachem.com所以要堅決反對應試教育,毫不猶豫地變應試教育為素質教育,使機械學習邊快樂學習,這是情感教學原則體系中的一條核心原則。這條原則的基本涵義是教師要在教學中操縱各種教學變量,使學生懷著快樂——興趣的情緒進行學習。也就是說,使教學在學生樂于接受、樂于學習的狀態中進行。這條原則與“樂學”的基本精神是相應的。教師在貫徹寓教于樂原則時,雖然操作點在于引發學生的快樂和興趣情緒,但其目標并不停留在低層次的情緒調節上,而只是以情緒調節為切入口,藉以引導學生由低層次的“外在樂”向高層次的“內在樂”方向轉化。這種轉化的實質是變“樂中學”為“學中樂”,達到治學的最高境界。
      二、遵循語言教學規律,優化課堂教學目標
      學生80%以上的知識接受和技能訓練是在課堂教學中完成的,因此課堂教學是漢語教學實施素質教育的主陣地、主渠道。提高課堂教學效果、優化課堂教學內容和目標首當其沖。傳統的“應試教育”不足之一即在于重視智力因素而忽視學生非智力因素的培養。表現為“教學內容繁雜,”目標不明確不突出,對學生學習態度、興趣、自信心、學習策略及習慣的培養都沒有具體目標,無的放矢。課堂教學有一個明確具體的教學目標,教什么,教到什么程度,這既是教學的起點,也是教學的歸宿,教學全過程都必須圍繞這個目標來展開和完成。新的《漢語課程標準》對基礎教育階段漢語課程教學內容和目標做了明確的規定,包括“知識、技能、情感、策略和文化”等五個方面。在重視知識和技能的同時,首次把“情感、策略和文化”引入教學目標,并實現目標分極使之更加層次化、具體化,這無疑給新時期漢語教學指明了方向,對基礎英語教學實施素質教育帶來生機。因此,我們必須克服過去教學中存在的弊端和不足,以新的教學總目標為依據,優化課堂教學目標,大到學年、學期目標,小到一節課目標。建一立全新的教學理念,以情感為核心,把培養學生學習動機、興趣、意志、性格等因素列入教學目標并使之具體化,面向全體學生,注重學生層次和個性差異。達到全面發展的最終目標。
      三、創設交際情境,培養學生交際能力,是漢語教學實施素質教育的根本目的
      漢語是一門實踐性很強的語言藝術學科,是一種交際工具。實踐證明學習語言除了有科學的學習方法,還有一條最佳捷徑,那便是有一個真實的語言交際環境。在教學實際活動中,即使沒有一個真實的純漢語交際的大環境,但我們絕對有能力營造、創設一個基本接近于說漢語、用漢語的交際小環

    境。大自然的千姿百態,多姿多彩的民俗風情,優美動聽的漢文歌曲,勇于探索創新的人物形象以及現代教育技術在語言教學中的運用等無不給語言教師提供了豐富的交際素材。如問候、指路、購物、看病、打電話、邀請親友、日常生活及學習活動等題材,教師一可通過實物及教具演示、看圖及投影會話、扮演角色形象、詩歌故事演講、日常生活小事對話等課堂活動運,運用聽錄音、放錄像、繪制簡筆畫等手段、組織漢語演說竟賽、課外漢語角交流等活動,創設語言交際情境,提高學生綜合技能。教師還要不斷調查研究,掌握交際動態,力求面向全體學生,克服部分中差生不敢說、害怕說錯、羞于啟齒的語言心理障礙,盡可能多地為中差生提供交際機會,分層、分組組織他們進行情景會話表演,使轉化中差生工作上一個臺階。這樣,將語言形式與語言意義和學生實際相聯系,通過動耳、動口、動手、動腦組織大量聽、說、讀、寫等交際活動,培養了學生的學習興趣,建立了初步語感,并內化知識,形成技能,增強了語言實踐運用能力。
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  •  更新時間:2014-08-31 10:52:12  作者:佚名 [標簽: 初中 漢語 ]
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